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Psychology Final Review- Meeks
Terms in this set (54)
What is the definition of social psychology?
the scientific study of how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by social groups; the area of psychology in which psychologists focus on how human behavior is affected by others
What is the definition of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)?
disorder in which intruding, recurring thoughts or obsessions create anxiety that is relieved by performing a repetitive, ritualistic behavior or mental act (compulsion)
What is the definition of phobia?
irrational, persistent fear of an object, situation, or social activity
What is an example of a stereotype?
set of characteristics that people believe is shared by all members of a particular social category; concept held about a person or group of people that is based on superficial, irrelevant characteristics
In the context of a relationship, what are complementary characteristics?
characteristics in the one person that fill a need in the other
What is the difference between and in-group and an out-group?
In-Group: social group with whom a person identifies
Out-Group: social groups with whom a person does not identify
What is the difference between a positive correlation and a negative correlation?
Positive: relationship between two variables in which both variables move in tandem; one increases with the other
Negative: relationship between two variables in which one increases as the other decreases
What is social facilitation?
tendency for the presence of other people to have a positive impact on performance of an easy task and a negative impact on performance of a tough task
What is fundamental attribution error?
tendency to overestimate influence of internal factors in determining behavior while underestimating situational factors
What are mood disorders?
disorders in which mood is severely disturbed; disturbances in emotion (affective disorders)
What are the models of abnormality?
Biological: psychological disorders have a biological or medical cause
Psychodynamic: result of repressing one's threatening thoughts, memories, and concerns in the unconscious mind
Behaviorist: disorder behaviors are learned just like normal ones
Cognitive: result of illogical thinking patterns
Sociocultural: abnormal behavior is product of behavioral shaping within context of family influences, social groups, and culture
Biophysical: biological, psychological, and sociocultural influences on disorders
What is an example of generalized anxiety disorder?
excessive anxiety and worries occur more days than not for at least 6 months; no particular source that can be pinpointed, nor can the person control feelings even if an effort is made to do so
What is an example of borderline personality disorder?
relationships with others are intense and relatively unstable; person lacks sense of identity and often clings to others with pattern of self-destructiveness, chronic loneliness, and disruptive anger in close relationships; impulsive, unstable sense of self and are intensely fearful of abandonment; rapid changes in life goals, career choices, friendships, and sexual behavior
What did the murder of Kitty Genovese demonstrate, and how many people intervened?
38 by-standers were at the window and no one helped; demonstrates the by-stander effect and diffusion of responsibility
Who is at the greatest risk for developing schizophrenia?
monozygotic twins who have a blood relative with the disorder
What is altruism?
prosocial behavior that is done with no expectation of reward and may involve the risk of harm to oneself
What are delusions?
false beliefs held by a person who refuses to accept evidence of their falseness
What is anorexia nervosa?
person reduces eating to the point that their body weight is significantly low, or less than minimally expected (BMI < 18.5)
What is schizophrenia?
characterized by delusions, speech disturbances, thought disturbances, hallucinations, show little or no emotion, and have catatonia
What is anti-social personality disorder?
characterized by habitually breaking the law, disobeying rules, telling lies, using other people with disregard for their rights, irritability, aggression, take advantage of others, selfish, self-centered, and manipulative
What is an example of a cognitive psychologist?
study the way people think, remember, and mentally organize information
What is the foot-in-the-door technique?
asking for a small commitment and, after gaining compliance, asking for a bigger commitment
What is the behaviorist perspective on disordered behavior?
Behaviorists define personality as a set of learned responses and have no trouble explaining disordered behavior as being learned just like normal behavior
Which model of abnormality was established by Sigmund Freud?
The Psychodynamic Model, which explains disordered thinking and behavior as the result of repressing one's threatening thoughts, memories, and concerns in the unconscious mind
What is social loafing, and how is it best addressed?
tendency for people to put less effort in simple task when working with others on that task; people who are lazy tend not to do as well when other people are also working on the same task, but do well when working on their own
Address it by keeping small groups, developing rules of engagement, or assigning separate and distinct contributions for every team member
What is attitude?
the tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain person, object, idea, or situation
What is flat affect?
condition in which one person shows little or no emotion
What is groupthink?
occurs when people within a group feel it is more important to maintain group's cohesiveness than to consider the facts realistically
What is the DSM, what does it provide, and what is its purpose?
the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders; provides clinicians with descriptions and criteria for diagnosing mental disorders, describing symptoms, prognosis, and checklist that must be met for diagnosis to be made
What happened in the Milgram experiment? What was the primary response? Was it ethical?
wondered how much impact social influence could have on behavior, teachers would administer level to of shock to learner, and instructed to increase by 15V; 65% of teachers went all the way through the final shock level, none quit before reaching 300V; 84% of participants were glad to have been part of the experiment, and a follow up was conducted a year later and participants were unharmed
What are some examples of personality disorders?
Weird: Paranoid, Schizoid, Schizotypal
Wild: Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic
Worried: Avoidant, Dependent, Obsessive Compulsive
What was commonly thought to be the cause of mental illness prior to the models of abnormality?
Ancients believed it was demons possessing a victim; Hippocrates believed that illness of both the body and mind were the result of imbalances in the body's vital fluids (humors); Middle Ages believed in spirit possession as one cause of abnormality
What is an example of persecutory delusion?
people believe that others are trying to hurt them in some way
What is said about attractive people vs. people we view as less attractive?
Physical beauty is one of the main factors that influence individuals' choices for selecting people they want to know better
What is a panic attack?
sudden onset of extreme panic with various physical symptoms including racing heart, rapid breathing, sensation of being 'out of one's body', dulled hearing and vision, sweating, and dry mouth; State of terror with feelings that one is dying
What defines bulimia?
condition in which a person develops cycles of binging or overeating enormous amounts of food in one sitting, then using inappropriate methods to avoid weight gain
According to Latanae and Darley, when are we most likely to offer help to another?
a single bystander is much more likely to act when others aren't present
What is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?
prejudice is a negative attitude held by a person about members of particular social groups; discrimination is treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong
What is psychopathology?
the study of abnormal behavior and psychological dysfunction
What is dissociative identity disorder?
a person experiences two or more distinct personalities existing in one body
What is an example of a delusion of grandeur?
people are convince that they are powerful people who can save the world or have a special mission
What is the by-stander effect?
effect that the presence of other people has on the decision to help or not help, wit help becoming less likely as the number of bystanders increases
What defines histrionic personality disorder?
Cluster B personality disorder characterized by a pattern of excessive attention-seeking emotions, and an excessive need for approval
What is cognitive dissonance?
sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior doesn't correspond to that person's attitude
Differentiate between obsessive and compulsive behaviors as they would appear in someone with OCD?
Obsessive Behaviors: intrusive thought that protrudes the mind
Compulsive Behaviors: compelled behavior to rid the anxiety of depression
What disorder alternates between episodes of mania and depression?
What is a manic episode?
characterized by excessive excitement, energy, and elation without any real cause to be so happy; person experiences restlessness, irritability, and an inability to sit still or remain inactive
What does the idiom "birds of a feather" mean?
people tend to like being around others who are similar to them in some way; the more people find they have in common with others, the more they tend to be attracted to those others
What is the difference between delusions and hallucinations?
Delusions are false beliefs about the world that the person holds and that tend to remain fixed and unshakable even in the face of evidence that disproves the delusions; hallucinations are when individuals hear voices or see things that aren't really there
What are the different types of love? Which one typically occurs towards the end of lifespan?
Romantic: intimacy and passion, basis for lasting relationships
Companionate: intimacy and commitment, holds marriages together
Fatuous: passion and commitment
Consummate: ideal form of intimacy, passion, and commitment
What is deindivuation?
lessening of individual's personal identity and personal responsibility, resulting in a lack of self control when in the group
What is persuasion?
the process by which one person tries to change the belief, opinion, position, or course of action of another person through argument, pleading, or explanation
What is the difference between compliance and conformity?
Compliance is changing one's behavior as a result other people directing or asking for the change; conformity is changing one's own behavior to match that of other people
In what cultures do we find eating disorders?
we find eating disorders disorders in all cultures, but most frequently in Western cultures
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