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Civil Rights, Reform, 1960s
Terms in this set (59)
Brown vs. Board of Education
a 1954 case in which the Supreme Court officially integrated the school systems
HS: Overturned "separate but equal" decision in Plessy v. Ferguson
Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him
HS: his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.
NAACP member who initiated the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 when she was arrested for violating Jim Crow rules on a bus
HS: became an icon of the quest for civil rights and focused national attention on boycott leader Martin Luther King, Jr.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city buses
HS: After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal
Martin Luther King, Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted public speaker, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations
HS: assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee, won Nobel Peace Prize in 1964
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization formed in 1957 by MLK Jr. and other leaders
HS: Their goal was to work for civil rights though nonviolent means, following the precedent by MLK and other nonviolent civil rights leaders
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, organization formed in 1960 to give young blacks a larger role in civil rights movement
HS: They are attributed with utilizing mass sit-ins to prove their point
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, organization founded in 1909 to promote full racial equality
HS: They worked tirelessly for decades to create opportunities for blacks, formed by WEB Dubois, preceded by Niagara Movement
American civil rights lawyer, tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor
HS: first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States
The first African American player in the major league of baseball
HS: His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
After World War 2, Truman made an executive order desegregating the military
HS: Although African-Americans had been fighting on minor scales for decades, this was the first time they got formal recognition and equal payment
Little Rock 9
1957, 9 students were barred from entering Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, against federal court order to desegregate and used troops to block them
HS: Eisenhower sent troops to protect the students,
increased hate & racial discrimination in Little Rock, public schools were closed afterwards
Congress of Racial Equality, interracial group founded in 1942 by James Farmer to work against segregation in Northern cities
HS: Unique due to the fact that it was comprised of all races and that it worked in the North
Bus rides that civil rights activists took through the South in the early 1960's to challenge segregation
...Inspired by Rosa Parks and other activists, activists traveled through multiple states
Pro-segregation governor of Alabama who ran for pres. in 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of segregation and law and order
HS: loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot and is left paralyzed
Police Commissioner who personally supervised a brutal effort to break up the peacful marches
HS: arrested hundreds of demonstrators and used attack dogs, tear gas, electric cattle prods, and fires hoses in full view of television cameras.
Supreme Court during the period when Earl Warren was chief justice, noted for its activism in the areas of civil rights and free speech
HS: They found that Lee Harvey Oswald was responsible for JFK's assassination
Refusal to obey those laws which are seen as unjust in an effort to bring about a change in government policy
HS: Henry David Thoreau wrote about civil disobedience in 19th century, and the tactic was promoted by Martin Luther King, Jr., during the Civil Rights Era
Robert F Kennedy
Younger brother of JFK who entered public life as U.S. Attorney General during the Kennedy Administration, became an anti-war, pro-civil rights presidential candidate in 1968, launching a popular challenge to incumbent President Johnson
HS: he was assassinated in California on June 6, 1968
"Project C" (C for confrontation), "Bull" Connor disputes the election and the Police and Fire department are answering to him, 2 governments were in place along with SCLC marching
HS: Protest is not going well because police are fighting "non violence" with "non violence"
March on Washington
Large political rally that took place in Washington, D.C. on August 28, 1963. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech advocating racial harmony at the Lincoln Memorial during the march
HS: Widely credited as helping lead to the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the National Voting Rights Act (1965), idea first proposed by A. Philip Randolph.
I Have a Dream
Given by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. during March on Washington
HS: speech appealed for the end of racial prejudice.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
When MLK is in jail during the Birmingham protests, he writes this letter, which explains the civil rights movement to critics. The letter was published and circulated countrywide.
Militant African-American political organization formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale to fight police brutality and provide services in the ghetto
HS: movement was one of the most significant movements, had provocative rhetoric, militant posture, and cultural and political flourishes, permanently altered the contours of American Identity
1964 project to register African-American voters in Mississippi. 3 civil rights worker were missing and later they were found dead. This brought national attention and the FBI to Mississippi.
HS: Worked to enforce 15th Amendment and stop poll tax, literacy tests, etc...
Civil Rights Act of 1964
...banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, national origin, or religion in public places and most workplaces
HS: Huge step in Civil Rights Era in integrating and desegregating most public places
In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program to reduce poverty and racial injustice and to promote a better quality of life in United States
HS: Creation of welfare and other programs in an effort to end poverty
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society.
Federal program, established in 1965, that provides hospital insurance and low-cost medical insurance to Americans aged 65 and over
HS: addition to Social Security system
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Law that made it easier for African Americans to register to vote
HS: Eliminated discriminatory literacy tests and authorizing federal examiners to enroll voters denied at local level
King organized this major demonstration in Alabama to press for the right of blacks to register to vote. Selma sheriff led local police in a televised brutal attack on demonstrators
HS: Two northern white marchers were murdered, and the outrage that came after helped LBJ pass the Civil Rights Act of 1965
War on Poverty
Those programs of President Lyndon Johnson's Great Society that were specifically aimed at assisting the poor
HS: Among these programs was volunteers in Service to America (VISTA), Medicaid, and the creation of the Office of Economic Opprtunity
Feminist author of "The Feminie Mystique" in 1960
HS: Her book sparked a new consciousness among suburban women and helped launch the second-wave feminist movement
Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers
HS: He helped to improve conditions for migrant farm workers and unionize them
United Farm Workers
Labor union formed in 1966 to seek higher wages and better working conditions for Mexican-American farm workers in California
HS: Led by Cesar Chavez, advocated for foreign workers' rights
Miranda vs. Arizona
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police
HS: Created Miranda Rights (arrested peoples must have their rights read to them)
________ was killed by Lee Harvey Oswald on November 22, 1963
Warren Court launched an investigation into the assassination
Malcolm X and Nation of Islam
He was a member of the Nation of Islam, a religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion
HS: His promise to ﬁnd equality for black Americans using "any means necessary" made him worrisome to whites in power
A young African American air force veteran who in 1962, attempted to enroll in the University of Mississippi. A fed court guaranteed his right to attend; in addition, Kennedy sent in 400 federal marshals and 3000 troops to control mob violence as Meredith attended class.
outlawed poll taxes
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination.
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community.
created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States
Arkansas governor who called out the National Guard to prevent nine black students from entering Little Rock's Central High School under federal court order.
This restaurant owner closed his restaurant rather than integrate. He eventually became governor and hired more blacks to office than all prior governors combined.
University of Ne was on the cutting edge of race questions when the football team fielded its first African-American player. later become a widely respected, almost revered physician in an out-state area where his and his father's families were isolated in the preponderantly Swedish community of Stromsburg in Polk County.
Nation of Islam
A religious group, popularly known as the Black Muslims, founded by Elijah Muhammad to promote black separatism and the Islamic religion.
Kennedy's plan, supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wans to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military
Equal Pay Act
1963 law that required both men and women to receive equal pay for equal work
Government practice of spending more than it takes in from taxes
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assasination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own. Commissioner is Chief Justice Warren.
Economic Opportunity Act
An economic legislation that created many social programs to help provide funds for youth programs antipoverty measures, small-business loans, and job training; part of the Great Society.
A federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
A federal and state assistance program that pays for health care services for people who cannot afford them.
Tinker v. DesMoines
Tinker siblings wore armbands to school to protest the Vietnam War and were suspended after refusing to remove them. Result: Symbolic speech is protected under the first A. The armbands caused no disturbance.
A prolonged war between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
Civil Rights Act of 1957
Law that established a federal Civil Rights Commission. Power to investigate violations of civil rights. The first Civil Rights Bill passed since Reconstruction; focused on voting rights and desegregation
one senior of the nine, became the first African American to graduate from Central High School
de jure segregation
segregation imposed by law
de facto segregation
segregation by custom or tradition
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