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Comparative Politics Final
Terms in this set (29)
identity is orientation about oneself, one's community; relational; can be the basis for political power relationships, interests, and mobilization
the idea that identity is physically embedded, spontaneous, and inflexible ("ancient hatreds" argument)
identity is malleable, based on choices and depend on social context; elites play a role in mobilizing specific identities
decreasing significance of religion, more rational worldview
Modernization theory predicts that secularization will spread and bring a rationalist worldview based on science, individualism, materialism
"Why God is Winning" Shah and Toft 2006
The spread of democracy (3rd wave) has not made religion less significant but in fact more so as faith becomes an increasingly powerful force in politics.
"Is Gender Like Ethnicity?" Huton 2004
Policies used to allocate access to political power by gender and ethnicity differ due to the different natures of the two. Gender tends to be cross cutting, so quotas that create space within existing parties are appropriate. Meanwhile, ethnic groups tend to coincide w/ political cleavages, so reservations that encourage formation of group-specific parties are a better method.
"Gay Rights: Why Democracy Matters" 2014 Encarnacion
Gay rights are increasing in some parts of the world while decreasing in others; most favorable environment is where political freedoms, civil society, and rule of law are strong: wealthy, secular, and democratic states
"The Global Divide on Homosexuality" Pew 2013
Greater acceptance in more secular and affluent countries
"Europe's Populist Surge: A Long Time in the Making" Mudde 2016
Rise of populism in Europe has been encouraged recently by threats of terrorism and immigration, as well as by economic instability; howeber, it originated in structural shifts of the 1960s. This combined with today's social, political, and media landscape favors populism in Europe and thus makes it especially tricky for elites and mainstream parties to respond effectively
"Latin America's Populist Hangover: What to do When the People's Party Ends"
While populism has been rising elsewhere, it is actually falling in Latin America. Populism polarizes society, weakens economies, and undermines representative democracy, but democratic decline can be avoided through citizens' movements.
"Trump and the Populist Authoritarian Parties: The Silent Revolution in Reverse" 2017 Inglehart and Norris
Postmaterialist values arose with the new peace and security in developed countries following WWII because taking survival for granted leads people to be less conformist and more tolerant. This caused cultural changes and benefits, but only for the top, leading those who lose out to support xenophobic, authoritarian populists.
"Could Populism Actually be Good for Democracy?" Miller 2018
Even though popular uprisings and populism can be disruptive and cause for concern, they are essential to the vitality and viability of modern democracy, which often falls short of true democracy.
A term that refers to the regular pattern by which women are more likely to support Democratic candidates (since 1970s). Women tend to be significantly less conservative than men and are more likely to support spending on social services and to oppose higher levels of military spending.
seats set aside for a specific group
party candidate quotas
Mandating that a set number of representatives must be of a certain gender, ethnicity, from each district when voting;
filling a quota, not guaranteed to be elected
a thin centered ideology which advocates the sovereign rule of the people as a homogeneous body
the liberal, socialist, or radical section of a political party or system; most common form of populism in LA (1930-1970s)
A strategy for economic development that calls for free markets, balanced budgets, privatization, free trade, and minimal government intervention in the economy; Alberto Fujimori was a neo-liberal populist in 1990s, Peru
Favoring drastic political, economic, or social reforms.
British system of parliamentary sovereignty, prime minister, and two parties alternating in power
Conservative Party (Tories)
"A Nation Divided" Ford and Goodwin 2017
"A transformed Political Landscape" Applebaum
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