Terms in this set (137)
what are the 3 main peninsula of Europe?
what countries are on the Iberian Peninsula?
Spain and Portugal (Andora)
where does the Iberian Peninsula separate the Atlantic from the Mediterranean?
the Straits of Gibraltar
what is in the center of the Iberian Peninsula?
the Meseta or a large plateau
how is the Iberian Peninsula cut off from the rest of Europe?
by the Pyrenees Mountains
what is the distance across the Pyrenees?
what are the Pyrenees mountains characterized by?
flat topped massifs or a body of mountain ranges formed by fault-line activity
what mountain range has the highest points in Europe?
where do the Apennine Mountains run?
down the spine of the Italian Peninsula to the center of Sicily
what is the length of the Apennine Mountains?
what is Europe's tallest active volcano? height?
Mt. Etna; 10,700 ft
where does the Northern European Plain stretch?
across England, France, Germany
how were the Alps created?
the folding of the Earth's crust and shaped by the glaciation
what is the highest point in the Alps? height?
Mont Blanc at 15,771 ft
what are the British Isles?
the two large islands northwest of the mainland and thousands of small islands
what is the geography of Great Britain like?
the coastline of rocky cliffs and deep bays
mountains, plateaus, and valleys
what is the geography of Ireland like?
low hills and rolling plaisn
what are fjords?
long, steep sided glacial valley now filled with seawater
what countries are found on the Scandinavian Plain?
Norway and Sweden
where is Denmark located?
the Jutland Peninsula
where is Iceland located?
an island in the North Atlantic
what is the geography of Norway and Sweden like? why?
very mountainous with many lakes, rivers, and fjords because of the glaciation
what percent of Finland is covered in lakes and rivers?
how many volcanoes does Iceland have?
what does Iceland mark the boundary between?
the European and North American continents
what are the two major rivers on the Iberian Peninsula?
where does the Tagus River run? length?
in Spain to the Atlantic to 626 mi
where does the Po River start?
in the Italian Peninsula -> in the Apennine Mountains
what is Italy's longest river?
the Po River; 405 mi
what are the rivers on the Balkan Peninsula like?
short and unnavigable
what percent of the Netherlands is below sea level?
how do the Dutch hold back sea water?
a series of dikes (large banks of earth and stone)
what do dikes allow to happen?
to reclaim land
what are polders?
low lying areas from which seawater has been drained to create new land - land reclaimed from the sea
where does the Rhone River run?
in the Swiss Alps through Switzerland and France to the Mediterranean
what is the length of the Rhone River?
where does the Danube River run? length?
through Germany to the Black Sea; 1,770 mi
what is the longest river in Iceland? length?
the Thjorsa; 143 mi
what are river on the Scandinavian Peninsula like?
short and don't provide easy easy connections to cities
what is the longest river in Norway? length?
what is the use of the Kemi River in Finland?
how long is the Kemi River in Finland?
what two climates zones do the Alps create?
the marine west coast for the north
warm Mediterranean climate of Italy and the Balkans
what is the average rainfall around the Alps?
less than 30 inches
what resource does Portugal have a lot of?
what are the resources of Spain?
coal, tin, tungsten
what is the climate of Northwestern Europe like? why?
mild; the North Atlantic Current brings warm tropical air from the Caribbean
describe the climate of Scandinavia. why?
humid continental; airflows of the Gulf Stream
what percent of peat deposits cover Finland?
what is peat?
a vegetable matter found in swamps, once dried the peat, it can be burned as fuel
what is dominant energy production in North Europe?
what is the world's 2nd largest natural gas exporter in the world?
why is Iceland's energy source unique?
it is geothermal energy which utilizes Earth's heat energy and converts it to eletricity
where do the Alpine Mountains lay?
Spain to Romania
what mountains ranges are extensions of the Swiss Alps?
where does the Dinaric range lay?
what area is known as the Adriatic / Dalmatian coast?
countries surrounding the Adriatic Sea
where do the Carpathian mountains run?
Slovakia to Romania
how are the Carpathian Mountains separated?
by a large basin
where do the waters from basin that separates the Carpathian Mountains flow?
to the Black Sea
what does the area of the Carpathian Mountains depend on the Transylvanian Plateau for?
agriculture and forestry
what is the eastern most part of Europe's three great peninsulas?
the Balkan Peninsula
describe the Balkan peninsula.
dominated by the Balkan mountains, has rugged landscape with harsh winters
what mountains created a climate boundary on the Balkan Peninsula? explain.
the Balkan create a climate boundary between the continental climate to the Danube Valley and the transitional climate south of the mountains
what lowlands are part of the Northern European plain?
the landscape of broad extensive plains of lowlands dominating Poland and Baltic countries
what mountain ranges are Russia dominated by?
what type of barrier do the Ural Mountains create?
a natural boundary between European Russia and Siberian Russiai`
what is the highest peak in the Caucasus? height?
Mt. Elbrus at 18,510 ft
what is the highest mountain in Russia and Europe?
what is the second largest country in Europe?
what country of Western Europe is landlocked? where does it lay?
Belarus; the Northern European Plain
how many lakes does Belarus have?
what is the 2nd largest river in Europe? where does it run?
the Danube; starting in Germany and emptying into the Black Sea
how many countries does the Danube pass through?
how is the Danube connected to the Rhine River?
through the Main River
what is the Main River / Main-Danube Canal?
a waterway that was completed in 1992
what does the Main-Danube Canal do?
provides important trade route (??) between the North Sea and the Black Sea
what is the largest River in Poland? where does it empty out into?
the Vistula; empties into the Black Sea
how is the Vistula River connected to the Oder River?
why is the canal for the Vistula-Oder river crucial for Polish economy?
it provides another means of transportation of goods alleviating an overburdened railway system in Eastern Europe
what makes up the Volga River System?
the Volga River and its tributaries
how far does the Volga travel?
what is the longest river in Europe? describe its route.
the Volga; starts in the Valdai Hills and empties into the Caspian Sea
where is Lake Baikal located?
what is the oldest lake in the world? how old?
Lake Baikal; 25 million years
what is the deepest lake in the world?
how much of all unfrozen freshwater on the planet does Lake Baikal have?
what is the nickname of Lake Baikal? why?
"Galapagos of Russia;" its age, isolation, and all the unusual freshwater marine specimens
what is the longest river in Ukraine? length?
the Dnieper; 609 mi
what are the functions of the Dnieper river?
- hydroelectric power
- provides freshwater (most important)
what are Liman?
large saline water lakes found along the coast of Ukraine
what are the largest rivers of Belarus?
- Western Dvina Rivers
what is the largest lake in Belarus? size?
Lake Narach; 31 sq mi
describe the climate of the Baltic Sea and Northern European Plain.
long, cold winters with temperatures 14 f
describe the trees of the Baltic Sea region.
evergreen outnumber deciduous trees
describe the trees in the Northern European Plain.
equal mix of evergreens and deciduous trees
what are the natural resources of Poland?
coal, amber, natural gas, iron, lead, zinc, and copper
what is "Baltic Gold"?
the vast amounts of amber in Poland
what is the Danube region?
the south of the northern european plain
where does Danube region encompass?
the Hungarian Plain, the Carpathian, and Balkan Mountains
describe the climate of the Danube.
continental, but some coastal areas of the landlocked Black Sea have microbiomes that are a combination of humid continental and humid subtropical
what resources does the Danube region have?
natural gas, oil, coal
describe why there are micro-biomes along the Black Sea coast in the Danube region.
subtropical air flows across the Mediterranean into the Black Sea ensuring warm, moist summers on the southwestern shores
describe the climate of the areas around the Adriatic sea.
Mediterranean climate with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry, sunny summers
what is the vegetation like of the Adriatic Sea?
scrubland interspersed with woodlands and forests
what types of crops can the Adriatic Coast support?
grapes and olives
what percent of energy does Latvia get from hydroelectric power?
what is the dominate climate of Russia? why?
cold, snowy winters because it lies in the high latitudes
what percent of Tundra covers Russia? what plants can survive here?
10%; mosses, lichen, algae, dwarf shrubs
what is a taiga biome?
boreal forest; broad expanses of coniferous evergreen trees
what areas of Russia have a steppe climate? what type of vegetation can they support?
areas of the Black Sea; wheat, barely, rye, oats, sunflowers, mint, and beans
how much of the worlds forests does Russia have?
what are the resources of Russia?
petroleum, coal, natural gas, liquid nickel, aluminum, gemstones, platinum
describe the climate of Ukraine.
- warmer, humid air from the Atlantic Ocean makes the climate milder
what are the resources of Ukraine?
wax, iron, granite, graphite
what is the climate of Belarus?
what is contentality?
the effect of extreme variation in temperature and very little precipitation with the interior portions of a landmass
what are the natural resources of Belarus?
peat, oil, chalk, sand, clay, gravel, granite, limestone
why is Eastern Europe known as the Shatter Belt?
constant political and territorial fighting along cultural and ethnic lines
what are the main groups of people?
Celtic, the Germanic, the Slavic
describe the relationship between the Celtic, the Germanic, and the Slavic peoples.
they had much infighting but lived in peace until the Romans arrived in 106 ad and conquered the land between the Carpathian Mountains, and the Danube River
what was the most famous ethnic conflict of the Balkan Peninsula?
the conflict that started WWI when a Serbian nationalist assassinated Archduke Francis Ferdinand who was heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne in 1914
how was the map of Eastern Europe redrawn after WWI?
it was drawn based on ethnicity, populations, politics, and economic strengths
what is Balkanization?
division of regions into smaller hostile regions
how was Yugoslavia created?
the combined smaller ethnic regions
what is ethnic cleansing?
the expelling from a country or genocide of an ethnic group
how many countries was Yugoslavia split into? why?
8 based on ethnic groups
what are Kievan Rus?
a loose union of city-states ruled by princes
who does Russia's history go back to?
Slavic farmers of East Europe
how long did the Kievan Rus last for?
until the Mongols invaded in 1200s and controlled the land more than 200 years
who modernized Russia in 1600? what was his nickname?
Czar Peter (Peter the Great)
what did Czar Peter do for Russia?
he expanded the country to the Baltic Sea giving the country a window to the west
what did Catherine the Great and the Romanov's do for Russia?
continued to expand gaining land from the Baltic to the Black Sea
who expanded Russia into Siberia? how?
Czar Alexander with the Trans-Siberian railroad to the Pacific
who was Karl Marx? how did he change Russia?
a Jewish German philosopher; his idea of public ownership of all land and means of production and a classless society with an equal sharing of weather, later known as communism
how was the Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) formed?
with the murder of the Czar and his family
when did the Soviet start transitioning to democracy?
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