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US History Final--Semester 2
Terms in this set (115)
**be able to read an example and determine what theme it is illustrating
1. choices have consequences
2. individuals have rights and responsibilities
3. societies are shaped by beliefs, ideas, and diversity
4. societies experience continuity and change over time
5. relationships between people, place, idea, and environment are dynamic
widespread fear of communism in America
wanted America to return to normal after WWI, pro-business, laissez-faire
what was President Harding's attitude towards the economy?
supported big businesses
what was President Coolidge's attitude towards the economy?
Coolidge claimed that the business of America is _____________________________________
Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith, Louis Armstrong
who are some major jazz performers?
integrated cultures, started civil rights movement
what was the impact of the Harlem Renaissance?
trial of a Tennessee schoolteacher John T. Scopes for teaching Darwin's theory of evolution, he was found guilty and fined $100
made transportation fast and efficient, led to creation of highways and interstates, led to economic growth in other industries
what was the impact of the automobile on American culture?
favoring the interests of people from your country over immigrants
Americans favored their beliefs and did not want immigrants to come into the country with communist beliefs
how is nativism connected to the continued rise in immigration and the red scare?
sacco and vanzetti
2 Italian immigrants were charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory, convicted on circumstantial evidence and many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union views
congressional support to hunt out political radicals and immigrants who might have communist connections, which led to the arrest of nearly 5,500 people and the deportation of nearly 400
name given to the prohibition movement
many veterans were abused or threatened because Americans did not want to grant them equal rights
what was the attitude of many Americans towards black veterans as they returned home from WWI
prohibition led to a rise in ________
famous Chicago gangster who made a fortune off of bootlegging (illegally selling, transporting, and consuming alcohol). He was not convicted of any wrongdoing until a judge convicted him of income-tax evasion
valentine's day massacre
7 members and associates of Chicago's North Side Gang were shot and murdered at a Lincoln Park garage
teapot dome scandal
one of Harding's secretaries named Albert B. Fall was found guilty of accepting a bribe and leasing federal oil fields to private oil companies and was sent to jail
what poor political practice does the teapot dome scandal illustrate?
only 200 businesses controlled 50% of the economy, too much overproduction, most of the population did not have a savings account, banks were not insured, government agencies did not monitor banks or the stock market
what were some early warning signs of a struggling economy after WWI?
people were spending money without replenishing it in the bank
what caused the stockmarket crash?
prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcohol
gave women the right to vote
18th--Jan 16, 1919, 19th--August 18, 1920
Were the 18th and 19th Amendments passed at the same time?
chicago race riot of 1919
African Americans migrated to northern cities during WWI which increased racial tensions. Whites resented them for the competition in jobs and housing. These riots began in Chicago when a black teenager accidentally drifted toward a "whites only" beach and was stoned by angry whites and drowned. 38 died and over 500 were injured
de facto segregation
separation of groups of people due to custom or tradition, not from law
streets and housing segregated races by custom, and beaches and schools were also segregated
How was de facto segregation displayed in Chicago?
WWI veterans who marched to D.C. demanding their $1,000 war bonus before the due date
Hoover sent the National Guard to drive out the veterans. Their camp was destroyed by tanks and some veterans were wounded. Hoover was viewed as cold and was criticized
why was the outcome of the bonus army bad for President Hoover?
Truman's plan for relief, recovery, and reform after the great depression. included the construction of the Hoover Dam, creation of the Reconstruction Finance Corps which loaned money to banks and railroads, and Social Security Administration, which provided insurance for retirement and disability
alphabet soup legislation
programs and agencies outlined in the new deal to get America's economy working again. these programs were given this name because of all the acronyms
how many terms did President Franklin Roosevelt serve?
policies-Roosevelt corollary (right to protect land), big stick diplomacy (intimidation), FDA (improved health), antiquities act (preserve historic sites)
differences-Harding and Coolidge were pro-business and hands-off, Roosevelt was anti-business and productive
what were some policies that Roosevelt had, and how were his styles different from previous Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover?
promised he would develop a new deal to reconstruct America ??
what precedent did FDR set in the early days of his presidency?
great pains-texas, oklahoma, kansas, colorado, new mexico
what region/states were primarily affected by the dust bowl?
technology advances, overfarming, wind
what caused the dust bowl?
prime minister of Italy
prime minister of Japan
communist dictator of the Soviet Union
dictator of Germany and Nazi leader
prime minister of Great Britain
"lightning war," a type of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland
nazi concentration camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the holocaust
Japanese internment camps
evacuation of Japanese from the West Coast to war relocation camps after the bombing of Pearl Harbor
Sunday, December 7, 1941
what day was Pearl Harbor bombed?
series of trials held in Nuremberg, Germany after WWII in which nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity
code name for the secret United States project during World War II to develop the atomic bomb
US's successful plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
military alliance made up of 12 non-communist countries including the US, England, France, Canada, and other Western European countries that supported each other if attacked
SEATO (Southeast Asia Treaty Organization)
organization with the United States, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Australia, the Philippines, Thailand, Pakistan, and many Asian countries with the purpose of preventing communism from gaining ground in Southeast Asia
Truman's policy of containment to stop the spread of communism and provide aid to other countries that were threatened by it
law that provided educational and financial benefits for veterans in WWII
Winston Churchill's term for the cold war division between the communist East and the non-communist West
many were surprised they would attempt to assemble a bomb, and it was believed that they stole information from other countries
why was it surprising that the Soviets developed the atomic bomb by 1949?
when China fell to communism, how was President Truman viewed?
competition between nations regarding achievements in the field of space exploration
the arms race during the cold war led to a growth in the defense industry and provided new ideas for how to construct satellites and rockets
how was the space race a direct outcome of the cold war?
getting a man in space
what did the Soviets accomplish first in the space race?
landed on the moon
what did America accomplish first in the space race?
boosted the development of science and technology
how did the space race affect America's economy?
Cuban missile crisis
missiles were deployed in Cuba and threatened the lives of many Americans. 25 Soviet ships went towards Cuba, but turned around at the last minute
Castro was communist, and his ideas might spread ?? idk lol
why was the overthrow of the Cuban government and Fidel Castro a concern for the US?
Bay of Pigs
unsuccessful invasion of Cuba that was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro, but Cuba had knowledge of the invasion and killed Cuban exile troops almost immediately
people learned not to trust the CIA because Americans had no knowledge of the invasion I think haha
why was the Bay of Pigs invasion controversial?
Truman's policy to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
an attempt to overthrow the government by sabotaging or undermining them
term associated with Senator Joseph McCarthy who led the search for communists in America
war in which the powers in conflict use third parties as substitutes instead of fighting each other directly
agreement to stop fighting
demilitarized zone (DMZ)
strip of land that serves as a buffer zone between North and South Korea where they cannot deploy soldiers
competition between the US and Soviet Union for superior weapons
US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam
refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery and triggered the national civil rights movement
Ho Chi Minh
communist dictator of North Vietnam
president after Johnson, wanted to improve relations with Red China, involved in the Watergate Scandal, which forced him to resign
Chinese communist leader
Martin Luther King Jr
civil rights leader who advocated for nonviolent resistance and gave speeches for the civil rights movement. he was later assassinated
chief justice of the supreme court
communist dictator of Cuba
Lee Harvey Oswald
assassinated President Kennedy, but was later shot
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
couple that was arrested and accused of selling secrets about the atomic bomb to Soviets and eventually were executed
Lyndon B. Johnson
developed the "great society" plan to grant more civil rights, made segregation illegal, developed the EEOC to prevent violations of civil rights, supported the job corps
John F. Kennedy
president during part of the cold war, Cuban missile crisis, space race, and construction of the Berlin Wall. he was assassinated while on a political campaign
Wisconsin Senator that created a national witch hunt for communists inside the United States after WWII
JFK's brother who was assassinated before being able to finish his political race
political and social freedoms and equality
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
congressional committee that investigated communist influence and sought out disloyal Americans & communists
communists and fascists, specifically in the film industry, schools, and government ?
what groups of people did HUAC target during the "Second Red Scare?"
Brown v. Board of Education
Oliver Brown's daughter was denied access to an all white school, so the incident was taken to the Supreme Court. The trial determined that separate is unequal, so schools were no longer segregated
on buses, students often sat grouped by their race or took a specific bus although it was not required ? pffff idk
districts began transporting students to school in order to follow regulations to integrate schools. how was this need an outcome of de facto segregation?
bus boycotts, sit-ins, freedom rides
what are some examples of peaceful protests?
little rock nine
group of black students from Little Rock that went through counseling to prepare for school and were attacked by mobs
civil rights activists who were sent from DC to New Orleans in an attempt to end segregation. the first bus was stopped and others were often attacked or burned
organization that aimed to abolish segregation and discrimination and to achieve rights for African Americans
Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas
where was JFK assassinated?
Lee Harvey Oswald, shot by Jack Ruby
who was arrested for JFK's murder, and what happened to him soon after?
Warren Commission found that Oswald killed JFK alone
Who investigated JFK's murder and what did they find?
Americans stopped trusting the government
how did the relationship between Americans and the government change after JFK's murder?
the name that referred to the Kennedy family because they were compared to this musical
segregation and discrimination is illegal, pushed for preservation and pollution laws, domestic
what were some pieces of legislation enacted under Johnson's Great Society plan? were these domestic or foreign affairs?
swamps, snipers, diseases
why was fighting in Vietnam so difficult?
if one nation turns Communist, so will neighboring nations
operation rolling thunder
campaign to bomb North Vietnam in an attempt to weaken the Vietcong's ability to fight, but it failed due to the tunnels that the guerrilla soldiers had built
gulf of Tonkin incident
US claims of innocent US Destroyers being bombed by North Vietnamese torpedo boats
huge attack by North Korea on the Vietnam New Year (Tet), resulted in thousands of casualties for South Vietnam
many thought TV undermined the war by losing support for the US due to the media's negative attitude while providing information to enemies in Vietnam. It was the first televised war
what was the importance/consequence of television during Vietnam? why was this different from WWII or even Korea?
a pass on getting drafted that was often obtained by acting like people did not meet qualifications. they would fake a sickness or injury, run away, or have children
war of attrition
war based on wearing the other side down by constant attacks and heavy losses
**Be able to locate the following on a map: Korea, Vietnam, Soviet Russia, Cuba, China
countries want to grow their power and influence others, and this starts basically every war-Korea, Vietnam, WWI and II
imperialism has time and time again been a cause for conflict over the course of history. how have we seen examples of this throughout our whole year of study?
people prefer their country's ideas over others. this is why the US was so involved Europe's communism struggles, and also why Americans did not want to allow immigrants in
nativism is an issue in the United States today. how do we see similar problems through the course of American history?
before WWI, America wanted to remain neutral and stay out of wars. later, we got involved in European and Asian affairs in order to stop the spread of communism and prevent unwanted ideas and acts in Europe
American foreign policy changed dramatically through the course of the world wars. how does the United States' role in the world shift over the years before WWI through the 1960s?
telegraph, radio, railroads, landlines, cell phone, makes communication fast and efficient so the world is more connected
technology has continually allowed citizens to become more and more connected to the world around them--including their government. be able to describe the evolution of communication/media technology and the impact it has had on American society.
new deal ??
What precedent did FDR set in the early days of his presidency?