2019 2nd Semester Biology Final
Terms in this set (64)
Chain of islands near South America where Darwin developed his theory of natural selection by studying the unique life there.
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
their beak structure directly relates to their environment and how they get their food
Hutton and Lyell
scientists who proposed the Earth was millions of years old due to their geological findings.
before Darwin - use and disuse (parts that are used become bigger and stronger while other parts deteriorate) and inheritance of acquired characteristics (organism can pass on "modifications" to its offspring
said human population cannot continue to increase exponentially; consequences will be war, famine & disease. Darwin said that applied to all organisms
The shared ancestor of new, different species that arose from one population
survival of the fittest
Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called natural selection
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits; process of change in species over time
A structure that is present in an organism but no longer serves its original purpose
structures that are similar in different species of common ancestry
deoxyribose + phosphate group + cytosine
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA)
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
process of copying DNA prior to cell division
mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA
three types of RNA involved in protein synthesis
the cell uses information from mRNA to produce proteins with tRNA and rRNA
changes in the genetic material
Organisms that make their own food
An organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes; gamete (sperm or egg cell)
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
Meiosis results in
four genetically different haploid cells
number of homologous chromosome PAIRS in a diploid human cell is
Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure; come from parents
division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
the fraction or percent of the time that an event occurs
A single-gene trait that has two alleles and that shows a simple dominant-recessive pattern will result in
Combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
natural selection acts directly on
when individuals at one end of a bell-curve have high fitness, or survive best
allele frequencies are more likely to remain unchanged
type of genetic drift that follows the colonization of a new habitat by a small group of individuals
In genetic drift, allele frequencies change due to...
situation in which allele frequencies of a population remain constant
When two species breed at different times of day, season, or years.
isolation between populations due to physical barriers
the trait observed in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred
principle of dominance
Mendel's second conclusion, which states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits.
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations.
An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
An organism that has two different alleles for a trait
Principle of Independent Assortment
during gamete formation, genes for different traits separate without influencing each other's inheritance
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
sex cells; a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.
Situation in which one allele is not completely dominant over another allele
The gradual change in a species over time
natural growth & development
ex: a moth into a butterfly, a baby into an adult
double-ring nitrogenous base; adenine and guanine
cytosine, thymine, uracil
tRNA (transfer RNA)
type of RNA molecule that transfers amino acids
mRNA (messenger RNA)
Contains codons. The form of RNA which is created as a blueprint from DNA; carries instructions for making a protein
a change in the base sequence of a gene that results from the loss of one or more base pairs in the DNA
a type of chromosomal mutation in which a segment of DNA is copied multiple times in the genome
mutation in which one part of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
segments flip and reattach
Formation of tetrads and crossing over
The pairs of homologous chromosomes line up in the center of the cell.
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
Formation of the nucleus and beginning of cytokinesis
Chromatin recondenses and the nucleus disappears
Chromosomes line up in the middle
sister chromatids move to the opposite poles of the cells.
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