Chapter 50 Animal Reproduction Practice Test
Terms in this set (31)
The production of offspring via unfertilized eggs is called _____.
Many animals, including Daphnia, are able to reproduce both sexually and asexually. Which of the following statements represents the leading hypothesis explaining the advantage associated with the ability to switch from asexual to sexual reproduction?
Sexual reproduction produces more genetically diverse offspring capable of surviving stressful environmental conditions.
Which of the following statements accurately describes differences between the processes of spermatogenesis and oogenesis in humans?
the production of oogonia stops before birth, whereas the production of spermatogonia occurs throughout adult life.
Which statement best characterizes external fertilization?
External fertilization is more common in fish than in birds.
What is the biological lesson provided by examples of unusual mating structures and behaviors such as Drosophila with giant sperm or bedbugs with hypodermic penises?
Mating behaviors and structures are remarkably varied, sometimes involving the death of the male
In sperm competition studies with fruit flies, Geoff Parker made which of the following observations?
Sperm from different males compete to fertilize eggs.
Which of the following animals would challenge the "lottery model" of sperm competition?
A female dung fly exerts control over which male's sperm are successful at fertilization.
How have studies of the lizard species Sceloporus helped scientists understand how natural selection has favored changes between oviparity and viviparity?
Viviparous lizard species appear to have evolved from oviparous species.
Which of the following statements accurately describes the contributions made by the seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands, and prostate gland to the semen?
The seminal vesicles contribute an energy source in the form of fructose.
Which of the following represents the correct route for sperm in humans, starting from its storage site and finishing at the site of fertilization? (Note: All possible structures may not be included in the answers below.)
Epididymis → vas deferens → urethra → uterus → oviduct
Which hormone(s), released from where in the body, trigger(s) puberty in human males and females?
GnRH released from the hypothalamus in both males and females
Which hormone spikes midway through the menstrual cycle and triggers ovulation?
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Which of the following statements most accurately describes the stages of the human menstrual cycle?
Ovulation occurs at the end of the follicular phase; the corpus luteum develops during the luteal phase.
How is a new menstrual cycle initiated when fertilization fails to occur?
Progesterone levels drop due to degeneration of the corpus luteum, releasing the hypothalamus and pituitary gland from feedback inhibition. FSH levels rise.
What is true for reproduction, gestation, and development in all mammals?
All mammals reproduce sexually.
Which of the following statements best describes the function of the placenta?
The placenta allows for gas and nutrient exchange between the maternal and fetal circulations.
On average, how would a pregnant woman's physiological state differ from when she was not pregnant?
Her blood pressure would be lower when she is pregnant.
Which of the following statements accurately explains the purpose and mechanism of a physiological adaptation involving nutrient or gas exchange between a pregnant human mother and the fetus?
Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for O2 than does maternal hemoglobin, which allows the fetus to always gain oxygen from the mother.
Which characteristic of the male reproductive system is not variable among animal species that reproduce sexually?
Presence of genitalia.
True or false? The basic functions of the human female reproductive system are to produce eggs, develop offspring, and make hormones.
Which function is not performed by the male reproductive system?
Production and storage of oogonia..
Which male reproductive structures are responsible for the transport and delivery of sperm?
Vas deferens, urethra, and penis.
Where does a human fetus develop?
Which of the following events occurs at the onset of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?
Development of the corpus luteum.
True or false? Humans form gametes by a process called gametogenesis.
What role do germ cells play in gametogenesis?
They produce cells that divide by mitosis and then undergo meiosis to form gametes.
What products are formed when a diploid cell undergoes meiosis?
Four haploid cells.
Which of the following statements about oogenesis in humans is true?
Beginning at puberty, a primary oocyte completes its first meiotic division to form a secondary oocyte and a polar body approximately every month.
Which diploid cells are produced by an embryonic germ cell?
True or false? The production of sperm begins at puberty when spermatogonia undergo meiosis I to form primary spermatocytes, which then undergo meiosis II to form secondary spermatocytes. These secondary spermatocytes go on to form spermatids, which mature into sperm cells.
How does spermatogenesis differ from oogenesis?
Diploid cells give rise to four functional gametes in spermatogenesis.