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A&P Chapter One
Terms in this set (98)
Study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another
Study of the function of body parts; how they work to carry out life-sustaining activities
Complementary of Structure and Function
Function always reflects structure
What a structure can do depends on its specific form
Chemical level, Cellular level, Tissue Level, Organ Level, Organ system Level, Organismal level
Atoms, Molecules, and Organelles
Groups of similar cells
Contains two or more types of tissues
Organ System Level
Organs that work closely together
All organ systems combines to make the whole organism
Organization of Body
Atoms, Molecules, Macromolecules, Organelles, Cells, Tissue, Organs, Organ systems, Organism
Necessary Life Functions
Maintaining Boundaries , Movement, Responsiveness, Digestion, Metabolism, Excretion, Reproduction, Growth
Separation between internal and external environments must exist
Muscular system allows movement
Ability to sense and respong to stimuli
Breakdown of ingested food stuffs, followed by absorption of simple molecules into blood
All chemical reactions that occur in body cells
Removal of wastes from metabolism and digestion
Cellular level involves division of cells for growth and repair
Organismal level- reproduction of offspring
Increase in size
How many organ systems are there?
11 Organ Systems
Nutrients, Oxygen, Water, Normal Body Temp, Appropriate atmospheric pressure
Skin, Hair, Nails, Cutaneous glands
What is in the Skeletal?
Bones, cartilages, ligaments
Muscular includes what?
What does the Nervous system include?
brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia
What does the Endocrine system include?
Pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas testes, ovaries
Cardiovascular includes what?w
Heart and blood vessels
Lymphatic Includes what?
Lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels, thymus, spleen, tonsils
Nose, Pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Digestive includes what?
Teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder and pancreas
Urinary includes what?
Kidneys ureters, urinary, bladder, urethra
Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands
Testes, epididymides, spermatic ducts, seminal vesicles, prostate glands, bulbourethral glands, penis
Homeostatasis is what?
Maintenance of relatively stable internal conditions despite continuous changes in environment
Body must constantly be monitored and regulated to maintain homeostasis. Receptor, control center, effector
Nervous and Endocrine systems incolves what?
Most involved, major role in maintaining homeostatsis
Variables are what?
Factors that can change; blood sugar, body temp, blood volume
Monitors environment, responds to stimuli (things that cause changes in controlled variables)
Control Center is what?
Determines set point at which variable is maintained, receivers input from receptor, determines appropriate response
Effector does what?
Receives output from control center. Provides the means to respond. Responses either reduces stimulus (neg feedback) or enhances stimulus (pos feedback)
Most used feedback mechanism in body. Response reduces or shuts off original stimulus.
EX: Regulation of body temp.
Regulation of blood glucose by insulin
Positive feedback is what?
Response enhances or ecaggerates the original stimulus. May exhibit a cascade or amplifying effects as feedback causes variable to continue in same direction as intial change. Usually controls infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustment.
Dusturbance of homeostatsis. Increases risk of disease, contributes to changes with aging. If neg feedback becomes overwhelmed, destructive positive Feedback mechanism may take over. (heart failure)
Person stands straight, feet flat on floor, arms at sides, palms eyes and face facing forward.
Front of body
Back of body
Top of body
Farther from the middle
Towards the nearest point of attachment of limb
Closer to surface
Head, neck and trunk
Upper and lower limbs
Junction of arm and trunk; includes the proximal humerus, clavicle and scapula
Part of upper extremity between the should and elbow
Part of upper extremity between the elbow and wrist
Area between the forearm and the metacarpus; inclues the 8 carpar bones
Part of the hand between wrist and fingers
upper extremity distal to the forearm; consists of wrist, metacarpus and fingers.
Divides body into left and right parts
divides body into equally left and right halves
divides body into left and right sections
Divides body into front and back parts
Divides body into upper and lower parts
Dorsal body cavity
Cranial and spine
Ventral body cavity
Thoracic cavity, pelvic, abdominal and diaphragm
Pleural cavity, mediastinum, and pericardial cavity
In the center
Right upper quadrant
Left Upper Quadrant
Stomach and spleen
Right Lower Quadrants
Lower left quadrant
Small intestine, Large intestine, urinary bladder, femur
Liver and Gullbladder
Appendix and cecum
A pouch connected to the junction of the small and large intestines
Thin, double layer membrane covering walls of the ventral body cavity and the outer surfaces of organs
POrtion that lines the body cavity
Portion that covers organs
Pleural membranes cover what?
Which pleural membranes cover the lungs?
Parietal pleaura, pleural cavity, visceral pleura
Pericardial Membranes cover what?
Which pericardial membranes cover the heart?
Parietal pericardium, pericardial cavity and visceral pericardium.
composed of the parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum.
Pleural cavity, mediastinum, pericardial cavity.
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