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Otto von Bismarck
Prime Minister of Prussia, and later Germany - master manipulator, wanted to unify Germany so he caused a war
War between France and Prussia and was the real cause of WW1 and WW2 - Prussia wins
a war debt - in this case, the French war debt from Franco-Prussian war (5 billion gold francs) - also in this case, the german war debt for WWI
France's "To Do List"
1) pay insane war debt (DONE)
2) save country from economic collapse (DONE)
3) regain Alsace-Lorraine from Germany (NEED TO DO)
4) REVENGE (NEED TO DO)
Comes from revanche, the french word for revenge. Applies to a country who wants to recapture lost territories, etc.
Serbian nationalist group who wanted to separate Bosnia from Austria-Hungary to join Serbia
the "blank check"
after the assassination of the Archduke, Germany tells A-H that they have a blank check, meaning A-H can declare war on Serbia and do anything they want with Germany's support
outbreak of war
A-H on Serbia
Germany on Russia
Germany on France
later, GB on Germany (bc Belgium is invaded)
"race to the sea"
when GB and France together went against Germany to build trenches around each other, which ended up extending straight out to the sea, to see which army could outflank the other (neither did)
war on two fronts
germany fought war on two fronts with russia and france - schlieffen plan was to get rid of france quickly and then take care of russia
Germany, Austria-Hungary, bulgaria, ottoman empire (not sure if we need to know ottoman empire)
United Kingdom, France, Portugal, Italy, Belgium, Monte-Negro, Serbia, Greece, Romania, Russia
when GB and France vs. Germany dug trenches to live/fight from for protection during the race to the sea
German submarines that enforced the blockade around Great Britain, which became unrestricted submarine warfare
a British passenger ship torpedoed by a u-boat on May 7, 1915, killing 128 Americans among 1200 passengers
the Arabic Pledge
pledge issued by Germany after Arabic ship was sunk (2 americans dead), which promises that no more passenger ships will be sunk without warming and without providing for rescue of passengers - pledged on Sept. 1, 1915
the Sussex Pledge
pledge issued by Germany to try to only target passenger ships, to only sink ships after it has been confirmed that the ship was carrying war goods of weapons and to make sure all passengers and crew were safely evacuated
unrestricted submarine warfare
a policy that the Germans announced in January 1917 which stated that their submarines would sink any ship in the British waters
a telegram fron the German secretary to a German minister in Mexico telling him to urge Mexico to attach the US if the US declared war on Germany, and Germany woud help Mexico win back its lost land in the states
1st Russian Revolution
in March 1917, the Czar is overthrown and the Provisional government is established, which is democratic
Wilson's War Message to Congress
he asked congress to declare war on Germany because they were killing innocent people, and they've disturbed the peace of the people in the US - the world must be made safe for democracy
a song sung by soldiers going into battle and to bring up American spirit, written by George M. Cohan in 1917
the spreading of ideas that help a cause or hurt an opposing cause - each side waged a propaganda war in the US by picturing the other as savage beasts who kiled innocent civilians
chosen to be head of Food Administration and relied on cooperation rather than force - food will win the war!
bonds bought by Americans which lent their money to the government to pay for the war (they raised $21 billion, which is more than half of what was spent in total)
someone who believes that people as a whole rather than private individuals should own all property and share profits from all businesses - they opposed war because they argued that the war benefited factory owners but not workers
the "Great Migration"
when people from other parts of the country migrated north to fill the jobs of the men who had gone to war - factory jobs - many African Americans migrated for the jobs
led by Vladimir Lenin, it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian government during WW1
2nd Russian Revolution
when Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks took over the Russian democratic government and turned Russia into a communist nation - in October/november 1917
Russian Civil War
when "white" anticommunists fought the "red" communists to decide how Russia would be governed
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
let Russia get out of WWI and made peace agreements between it and Germany - Russia had to give Germany large amounts of land
America's "unknown war"
when Wilson got involved in the Russian civil war by sending money to help the "white" anticommunists and also sending American troops to Russia to try and help overthrow the communist revolution
The Red Scare
when Americans were afraid of a communist revolution in America - when they followed A. Mitchell Palmer in apprehending suspected communists
German "Peace Offensive"
when German troops gathered together near Amiens for an all-out attack on the Allies, which they hoped would be the final push to end the war, but the British troops camped there held on as they were pounded by canons, lasted 2 weeks and germans moved on - then, they tried another place and German troops got through Allied lines along the Aisne river and reached the Marne river - this is when American troops entered the war
American Expeditionary Force
the American troops who went to help France and Great Britain win the war against Germany
John J. Pershing
commanded the AEF, and also, in 1916, sent American troops into Mexico to hunt down Francisco "Pancho" Villa
Harlem Hell Fighters
an American army unit which consisted of African Americans, and was attached to the French Army
the flu epidemic which spread in 1918, right after the end of WWI and killed over half a million Americans and over 30 million people in the world
a peace plan made by Wilson in January 1918 before the war ended which was ment to prevent international problems from causing another war - included having a League of Nations, ending secret agreements, freedom of the seas, free trade, a limit on arms, and support for national self-determination
League of Nations
the fourteenth point in Wilson's peace plan which called for a general association of nations, whose jobs would be to protect the independence of all countries
the Big Four
the leaders of the most important Allied nations - Woodrow Wilson (US), David Lloyd George (GB), Georges Clemenceau (France), and Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
Treaty of Versailles
a treaty between the Allies and Germany which forced Germany to take full blame for the war, pay $300 billion ($75 billion today) of reparations, limit its size of army, forced it to give Alsace-Lorraine back to France, and made it give up its overseas colonies to the control of France and Britain
Henry Cabot Lodge
a man who wanted to keep the united states out of the league of nations in order to keep the US out of future war
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