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54 terms

HIST1020

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8,000 BCE
The year the Neolithic Revolution (agricultural) started
1517
The year Martin Luther invited the Roman Catholic Church to debate.
1861-1865
The beginning and ending years of the United States Civil War
1914-1918
The beginning and ending years of WWI
1939-1945
The beginning and ending years of WWII
Industrial Revolution (defintion)
Human life is radically changed altering existence; animal to mechanical power; technological, social, and psychological changes; extreme specialization; (1760-1880)
Stressed environment creates social problems. Relates to specialization
1960's-1970's experiment; Dr. Bruce Alexander; rats in cages became addicted to drugs whereas rats in a "rat park" chose a non-drug option Hit lever in rat cage because of environment, not addiction. Didn't lever in "rat park" because of healthy environment.
England
Industrial revolution begins here because of large coal deposits, raw materials, captial to invest, and scientific skills
Neolthic Era (comparision)
Pressure on resources, humans trapped in areas, lacking adequate food supplies, hunting/gathering to agriculture, nomdic to settled communities
Industrial Revolution (comparision)
Smaller agricultural revolution, more food=more time for other activites, large migration to cities
Causes of IR
Captialism (domestic system-"cottage industry" (entrepeneuers)), rediscovery of scientific method, agricultural revolution, political stability,
Empiricism
Opposite of faith, must be able to use 5 senses with, natural laws lead to understanding which leads to reason(ing)
Deist
Person who doesn't think God is involved in everyday life (lowers anxiety); Strasbourg Catherdral Clock; doesn't believe in divine revelation; (founding fathers)
Agricultural revolution is important to IR
Surplus of food means that not everyone is working in food production; more time so people can work in factories
Applying scientific principles to agriculture
Increased:human survival, human population, and human geography
Charles I
Beheaded in 1649 after trying to raise money without Parliment; ruling under divine rights, considered a "god"; frightened country (needed political stability)
Four Requirements for Democracy
Woodrow Wilson; popular soverienty (power to vote), men and women sufferage (1920-19th ammendment), law-making body (Congress), multiple partiesin law-making body
Population changes
Cities are crowded, filthy, and polluted. Countryside is depopulated. (1800-1850ish)
Status of Women
Working class- worked at home, middle class-stayed in home, corsets-certain look, conspicuous consumption (consume because you have money to); low-paying, dead-end jobs
Gin Lane/Beer Lane
paintings; gin-hardtimes, beer-happy, goodtimes; people not fit to handle the stress of the IR (William Hogarth)
Flying shuttle
Invented by John Kay; thread in spool on loom that goes from side to side; weaver needed 16 spinners instead of 4 previously; needed a faster way to produce thread/yarn
How you are defined
Before IR: what you produce/make
After IR: what you have (materials)
Luddities
Somebody who doesn't want to loose their job to a machine, and makes sure it doesn't; antitechnology (Ned Ludd)
Steam and Steel
Two technological advances that transformed transportation and buildings
Crystal Palace
Presents Great Britian as leader in IR; symbol of its industrial, military, and economic superiority; 13,000 exhibits
Psychological Impact of IR
Scientific Revolution: natural laws, rationallyunderstood, creates anxiety because it came so quickly and intensely
Ipso Facto Good
Progress is good; all you need is to apply reason to the universe and then act in conformity to them; part of Enlightenment
Rachel Carson
Silent Spring (book) - science isn't always good; DDT killing birds (picture of the woman writing while on a boat)
Natural Rights
John Locke; everyone has rights (white men) it is the natural order of universe; government protectes these and defense, law & order, taxes
Classical Liberalism
Parlimentary government (some voting rights), Laissez-faire (invisible hand in market to protect businesses), faith in linear progess (reason drives progress)
Classical Economics
Individualism (free to pursue profit), Laissez-faire (invisible hand), Natural laws (supply and demand), Freedom of contract, Free competition
Liberal Theoriests
Thomas Malthus: Essay on Population-charity will exceed population that can be handled; David Ricardo: Iron of Law of Wages-increased wages, bigger working class, lower wages down, charity creates problems; Jeremy Bentham: Utilitarianism-some government interaction-"greatest happiness for the greatest number"
Spock
"The good of the many outweighs the good of the few, or the one." similar to utiliarianism
John Stuart Mill
Bentham's devoted disciple; On Liberty (book)-must have liberty to have other things; liberty required for social happiness; tyranny of majority (Prop. 13); sacrifices for others
Edmund Burke
Spokesman for Classical Conservatism; Reflections of the Revolution in France (book)-didn't agree with revolution or natural law; A Vindication of Natural Society (book)-must be crazy to disturb evolved society; wants stability
Communism
Part of Socialism; Karl Marx and Frederich Engles; soverienty, proletariat revolution (can't predict or stop); wants to protect working class
Socialism
Wants to protect workers; economic reform through laws; humans can effect change in history
Utopian Socialism
Socialism with a "vision", not a plan; Claude Henri de Saint-Simon (hierarchical society), Charles Fourier (phalanx), Robert Owens (model factory, collective farm; people are naturally good), Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (producer in society should be everything)
Millard Fuller
Founder of Habitat for Humanity; friends with Clarence Jordan (modern incarnation on socailst group)
Scientific Socialism
Socialism with a plan, concerned with working class; Karl Marx; believes capitalism if theft of labor; bourgouesie and proletariat will clash causing classes,stateless soceity
Hegelian Dialectic
Studied by Karl Marx; thesis--><--antithesis, out of it comes synthesis (which becomes thesis)
Nationalism
Ties people together through language, culture, ethnicity, and religion; is created, artifical
Russell "Rusty" Schweickart
Apollo 9; conversion in space that people are fighting and killing over imaginary lines and that the world is beautiful
Imperialism
"Sun never sets of the British Empire"; New: penetrated interior, physical and cultural conflict, assume control of production, spread of IR
Count Ferdinand de Lessups
Designed Suez and Panama Canals
Hiram Maxim & Maxim Gun
Wanted to become rich; build a gun that shots 11 bullets per second (fast at time) because someone told him to make money he needed to develop something that will help Europeans kill each other
Forces of Imperalism
Quest for wealth (greed), Geopolitics, Nationalism, Social Darwinism, Christianity
Rudyard Kipling
Wrote-The White Man's Burden:to "civilize" other countries; have wondered if he was serious
"Dark Continent"
Due to Europeans' ignorance, Africa was named this
Dr. David Livingstone
Went to central Africa for medicinal, humanitarian, and Christian reasons; quinine-used to prevent malaryia; excitement in Europe; entered at Zambesi River and met Victoria Falls (largest body of falling water in world)
Henry Moron Stanely
Sent by King Leopold II to find Livingstone ("Dr. Livingstone, I presume.") wanted money
King Leopold II
King of Belgium; saw economic resources in Africa, claimed Congo; ivory from tusks; kills 10,000,000 Africians-rubber plants, blood rubber, took families, cut off hands/arms (stopped ipso facto good theory) darkest hours of new imperialism
Dr. E.D. Morel and Roger Casement
Investigated happenings in Congo; founded Congo Reform Assocation
Congo Reform Association (1904)
Founded by Dr. E.D. Morel and Roger Casement; first human rights group in history; used to stop/help Congo after destruction of King Leopold II