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Psych (Chapter 3)
Terms in this set (68)
Fraternal twins originate from:
two sperm cells and two egg cells.
The union of an egg and a sperm produces a(n):
The portion of a DNA molecule that contains the code for the manufacture of one specific type of protein molecule is called a(n):
Natural selection is the process by which:
a species becomes adapted to its environment.
Kin selection theory was developed to explain why____.
animals help close relatives.
Suppose one population of a species has a somewhat different gene pool than another because the original members of one group brought with them to a new location some unusual genes. The genetic differences between the groups would be attributable to:
If the two genes that occupy corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes are different, we say the individual carrying them is _____ at that location.
In most bird species, both the male and the female are involved about equally in taking care of the eggs and the chicks since one of the parents must protect the nest while the other parent obtains food. One would, therefore, expect most bird species to have which of the following mating systems?
The set of genes that the individual inherits is known in genetics as a:
Barking in dogs is a species-typical behavior. If given rewards, dogs can learn to walk upright on two legs, but this behavior is not species-typical. The difference between species-typical behaviors and behaviors we would not label as such has to do with the degree of _____ involved.
Which of the following statements regarding twins is FALSE?
Fraternal twins originate when one egg is fertilized by two sperm.
An allele is said to be dominant when it produces its observable effects:
in both the heterozygous and homozygous conditions.
Wolves, killer whales, and army ants all live and hunt in packs. This is an example of:
Purebred basenji hounds are fearful and purebred cocker spaniels are not. If this difference is due entirely to a single dominant gene promoting fearfulness, then about what percentage of F1 offspring of cockers and basenjis should show high fear?
What are the consequences for plagiarizing on the Research Report assignment?
You will receive an automatic "F" in the course.
Helping another animal while decreasing ones own survival or reproductive chances is called:
What is the term used by geneticists to refer to observable properties of the body?
A gene that produces its observable effects only in the homozygous condition is called:
What is meiosis?
the process by which cells divide and produce egg or sperm cells
Jamie wanted to develop a variety of cat for people who are allergic. More specifically, she wanted to develop a variety with very little dander or shedding. She proceeded to mate cats that were low in shedding and dander, then to mate the offspring that were lowest in shedding and dander, and so on in a process known as:
Males in certain bird species engage in mating dances that announce their location and availability for mating. It might be argued that male birds with a distinctive dance are more likely to attract a mate, and thus are more likely to leave offspring than a male bird that does not exhibit the dance. This argument is most likely to be considered:
an ultimate explanation.
A researcher who is interested in studying the genetic basis for aggression crosses two breeds of dogs. Breed A bites unfamiliar people and is termed "aggressive," while breed B hardly ever bites and is termed "docile.". One hundred percent of F1 hybrid puppies turn out to be docile, and 75 percent of F2 puppies are also docile. From this information the researcher can conclude that:
the tendency to bite under these conditions in both breeds is controlled by a single gene.
The belief that behavior is controlled by genes and is not much affected by environment, including one's culture, is referred to as the _____ fallacy.
Suppose we carry out a Mendelian study, beginning with two purebred strains of the same species of plant. One strain produces red flowers, the other yellow. We cross the strains and find that all of the resulting plants have red flowers. What should this tell us about the genes for red and yellow flowers?
Yellow is recessive.
When a rancher chooses which cows will breed with which bull, the rancher is engaging in:
Cultural differences in the use of the eyebrow flash illustrate that:
species-typical behaviors can be modified by learning.
Which of the following statements regarding genetic effects on behavior is TRUE?
Genes affect behavior only insofar as they control the development of the body that gives rise to behavior.
The main advantage of sexual reproduction is:
Ultimate and proximate explanations of behavior:
answer different types of questions, one concerning the behavior's role in survival and reproduction, the other concerning the physiological mechanism underlying the behavior.
When a human sperm and egg unite, the resulting zygote:
contains 23 paired chromosomes, one member of each pair coming from each parent.
When a cell divides twice to produce varied copies, this is known as:
According to kin selection theory, animals that engage in altruistic acts, such as warning others of an approaching predator, are:
helping to ensure the survival of genes they have in common with close relatives.
If the paired genes at a given locus are the same, the person carrying them is said to be _____ at that locus.
The man-made form of natural selection is known as:
If we observe that a given characteristic varies in a continuous fashion, we can presume that the trait is affected by:
If a trait varies in a continuous, graded manner among different individuals, then it is probably a:
The inheritance of acquired characteristics:
is considered impossible in light of current knowledge of genetics.
Because they originate from one zygote, identical twins are referred to as:
The normal human cell consists of 23 pairs of:
The spotted sandpiper is a species in which females mate with several males. This is an example of:
How are mutation and natural selection related to one another in the process of evolutionary change?
Through natural selection, a useful genetic mutation tends to become more common over the generations whereas a harmful mutation tends to decrease or die out.
An example of a vestigial characteristic today is our:
susceptibility to sugar.
Suppose we carry out a Mendelian study, beginning with two purebred strains of the same species of plant. One strain produces red flowers, the other yellow. We cross the strains and find that all of the resulting plants have red flowers. What should we get when we breed these offspring among themselves?
Three-fourths of the plants should have red flowers, the other one-fourth yellow flowers.
Researchers studying a particular species of birds find that the males and females demonstrate faithful pairing for raising young, despite the fact that large numbers of offspring are sired by neighboring males rather than the male at the nest. These birds are demonstrating primarily:
Reciprocity theory is used in the explanation of:
apparent acts of altruism.
The kin selection theory of altruism is designed to explain:
how apparent acts of altruism can be consistent with the principle of evolution by natural selection.
Which of the following statements about dominance and recessiveness is TRUE?
Some pairs of alleles do not involve a dominant/recessive pattern but rather blend their effects.
The assumption that genetic influences on our behavior take the form of genetic control of our behavior, which we can do nothing about, refers to:
In humans, the selective helping of family members is most consistent with the theory of altruism known as:
A scientist who explains the survival and reproductive value of the hawk's innate fear of snakes is offering a(n):
Recessive genes will only produce their effects on the body when they are in a:
Which process results in the faithful duplication of genetic material?
The two members of a gene pair are called:
Your textbook uses the example of the human belly button to illustrate which of the following ideas about evolution?
An adaptive change serving one purpose can result in another change that might itself serve no adaptive function.
Analogies in behavior among different species provide useful clues for:
understanding the evolutionary function of a species-typical behavior.
Which mating system tends to emerge when circumstances make it impossible for a single adult to raise offspring but possible for two?
In what way does a happy smile differ from the other form of human smile, the greeting smile?
It involves the eye area.
Errors that occasionally and unpredictably occur during DNA replication, causing the "replica" to be not quite identical to the original are:
A person falls prey to the naturalistic fallacy by mistakenly equating what is "natural" with what is:
Two genes that occupy corresponding locations on a pair of chromosomes are called:
Adult mice and rats that have not given birth will _____ take care of newborns placed in their cages, which illustrates that experience _____ activate genes.
begin only after several hours to; can
Which mating strategy involves one male that mates with more than one female?
Meghan and Amanda are identical twins. Amanda usually spends several hours a day absorbed in a book. Meghan can usually be found at the track. On vocabulary tests, Amanda consistently scores significantly higher than Meghan. The most likely explanation is that:
there are differences between Meghan's environment and Amanda's environment.
The selective aiding of kin enables the survival of:
Language use in humans can best be understood in terms of:
______ is an inherited characteristic of anatomy or behavior that is no longer useful to the species but was presumably useful at an earlier time in evolution.
Males are most likely to be larger than females in a:
A scientist who describes the physiological mechanisms and environmental conditions involved in how a particular species recognizes its offspring is offering a:
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
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