52 terms

Green Marketing Exam 2

Exam 2
STUDY
PLAY
Promotional Mix
Advertising
Personal Selling
Public Relations
Sales Promotion
Direct Marketing
Brand
Name, term, design, or symbol that identifies a seller's products and differentiates them from the competition's products
Brandy Equity
Value of a brand expressed as:
-Customer
-Corporate
-Financial
Eco-labels
Adherence to some standard associated with food safety and environmental performance
Social Labels
Concern human rights and labor standards
"Natural"
Definition based on the type of product under consideration
Organic
Free of synthetic substances
Contains no hormones/antibiotics
Has not been irradiated or fertilized with sewage sludge
Raised without the use of pesticides
Contains no GMO's
Biodynamic
A specific form of organic farming that augments organic processes with consideration of the time of year, location, soil type, and other factors
Required Certification
USA Energy Guide
ISO 4000
International management standard associated with environmental management
ISO 14020-14029
Self-declaration
Awarded by agency external to firm
Quantitative life cycle environmental assessment
Demarketing
Action taken by marketers to discourage consumption
General Demarketing
Companies try to shrink the level of total demand
Selective Demarketing
Organizations discourage demand from certain classes of consumers
Ostensible Demarketing
Involves limiting consumption for the purpose of increased sales
Innovation
Effort to create purposeful, focused change in an enterprise's economic, social, and ecological potential
Product Innovation Stages
-Idea Generation
1. Preliminary Assessment
2. Business Case
3. Product Development
4. Testing & Validation
5. Product Launch
Channel
A set of organizations involved in the process of making a product available for consumption
Logistics
The supply chain is a set of organizations linked directly to the flow of products and information from a source to the consumer
Porter
Value chain is the set of primary and support activities performed by the firm to serve as sources of competitive advantage
Sustainable Logistics
Process of planning, allocating, and controlling human and financial resources dedicated to physical distribution, manufacturing support, and purchasing operations
Reverse Logistics
Strategies that trace product back from the point of consumption
Retailing
Business activities involved in selling goods/services to consumers for their personal, family, or household use
Reclamation
Responsible collection of products once they no longer offer value to consumers
Component Restriction
Limits placed on the ingredients that can be incorporated into a product
Cradle-to-Cradle
Emphasizes recovery, recycling, and reuse
Paper
Made from renewable source
Consumes more energy and water in production
Higher levels of pollution
More greenhouse gases
Plastic
Lower transportation costs, lower production cost
Rarely recycled
Trap for wildlife
Price
That which is given up in exchange to acquire a good or service
Externalized costs
Unpaid social/economic costs which are associated with most goods and services
Relative Costs (4 examples)
Acquisition Costs
Possession Costs
Usage Costs
Opportunity Costs
Competitive Action
Size of the green consumer segment in the marketplace
Consumer's attitude toward green products
Carbon Offset Pricing
Marketer of a product enables the purchaser to compensate for the greenhouse gas emissions associated with consumption
Places the cost of sustainability directly in the hands of the consumer
Break-Even Pricing
Determine fixed and variable costs and estimates demand
The price is then determined as the sum of the fixed and variable costs divided by the number of units sold
Cost-based pricing
Adds a markup to the cost of the product to establish price
Value-based pricing
Uses the consumers' perceived value of a good to establish price
Status Quo
Charging a price that is consistent with the competition
Skimming Pricing
Setting a price to reach consumers willing to pay a higher price for product prior to marketing the product to more price-sensitive consumers
Penetration Pricing
Sets a low initial price in an attempt to increase market share rapidly
Price Lining
Offering of merchandise at a number of specific predetermined prices
(ex. Dollar Store)
Bundling
Offering two or more products or services for sale at one price
Sales Promotion
All marketing communication action designed to influence consumer purchases and relationships with intermediaries in distribution channels
Direct Marketing
Direct efforts to target an audience

(ex. Internet, direct mail, telemarketing, direct-action advertising, and catalog selling
Integrated Brand Promotion
The use of the promotional mix to build brand awareness, identity, and preference

-Brings consistency to the presentation of the brand
Brand Recall
The ability to retrieve the brand when given the product category, needs fulfilled category, or another type of cue

(ex. Toyota monitors extent to which consumers recall Prius brand when prompted the hybrid car category)
Brand Recognition
The consumer's ability to confirm exposure to the brand when given the brand as a cue

(ex. Toyota shows consumers the product or logo and assess their recognition)
Brand Imagery
Influences how consumers think about a brand rather than their objective assesment of product attributes
Corporate Credibility
The degree to which consumers believe (or trust in) the company
Life Cycle Assessment
Accounting for production and processing as well as resource energy usage, emissions, waste
Gates (In the product development process)
The points at which the firm evaluates the potential for product
Urban Sprawl
The widespread movement of households and private firms from city center and inner suburbs to very low-density suburbs
Private Label
a product in which the brand is owned by the retailer or wholesaler rather than by the producer
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