Cultural Anthropology Chapter 11: Global Economy

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Terms in this set (27)
Dependency TheoriesA critique of modernization theory that argued that despite the end of colonialism, the underlying economic relations of the modern world economic system had not changedUnderdevelopmentThe term used to suggest that poor countries are poor as a result of their relationship to an unbalanced global economic systemCore CountriesIndustrialized former colonial states that dominate the world economic systemsPeriphery CountriesThe least developed and least powerful nations often exploited by the core countries as sources of raw materials, cheap labor, and marketsFordismThe dominant model of industrial production for much of the twentieth century based on social compact among labor, corporations, and governmentFlexible AccumulationThe increasingly flexible strategies that corporations use to accumulate profits in an era of globalization enabled by innovative communication and transportation technologiesNeoliberalismAn economic and political worldview that sees the free market as the main mechanism for ensuring economic growth with a severely restricted role for governmentCommodity ChainsThe hands in an item passes through between producer and consumerPushes and PullsThe forces that spur migration from the country of origin and draw immigrants to a particular new destination countryBridges and BarriersThe factors that enable or inhibit migration (Bridges may include family networks, transportation links, govt immigration policies, and human smugglers. Barriers range from language difference and geographical distance to tightly regulated borders and expenditures for passports, visas, and transportation.)Internal MigrationThe movement of people within their own national bordersLabor ImmigrantsA person who moves in search of a low skill and low wage job, often fill an economic niche that native born workers will not fillProfessional ImmigrantsA highly trained individual who moves to fill an economic niche in middle class profession often marked by shortages in the receiving countryEntrepreneurial ImmigrantsA person who moves to a new location to conduct trade and establish a businessRefugeesA person who has been forced to move beyond his or her national borders because of persecution, armed conflict, or natural disastersAccording to forensic anthropologist Bruce Anderson, quoted in "Who is Dayani Cristal," what is the problem driving the crisis of migrant deaths at the border?The fact that there is so much border control at the borders of California and Texas, and because of tighter border policies. Despite this, people are still going to migrate, but through the hard, treacherous territories of Arizona that were assumed to be too daunting for them to travel. It is almost physically impossible for them survive traveling through the desert with the little supply of food and water they carry along with them.How did NAFTA impact migration from Mexico to the U.S.?The predicted growth of the Mexican economy was supposed to be enough to create more competitive jobs in Mexico, and thus reduce the incentive for migration, but this has not been the case. NAFTA also allowed for the United States to grant large subsidies to American farmers. In doing so, American farmers were then able to export agricultural goods at a much lower price, undermining the Mexican farmers who had previously been reliant on exports to the United States. This pushed many Mexican farmers off the land, and encouraged them to flee to the United States illegally.