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the branching extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body
node of ranvier
small gap between myelinated segments where axonal membrane is exposed; increase speed of impulses
the potential difference between the two sides of the membrane of a nerve cell when the cell is not conducting an impulse
change in electrical potential that occurs between the inside and outside of a nerve or muscle fiber when it is stimulated
a chemical messenger that travels across the synapse from one neuron to the next and influences whether a neuron will generate an action potential(impulse)
connects the hemispheres; found deep inside cerebrum; allows hemispheres to share information
a progressive disease that destroys brain cells and is identified by muscular tremors, slowing of movement, and partial facial paralysis
a disease that results in the progressive loss of an individual's memory and mental capacity.
"Lou Gherig's Disease" - progressive neurological disease in which the motor neurons degenerate to the point of total loss of motor function. The intelligence, memory, and personality is unaffected.
binding of nuerotransmitter to receptor opens up sodium channels, increasing likelihood that action potential will occur in postsyapticcell
Process in which postsynaptic neuron is made more neagtive on the inside, decreasing the likelihood of action potential
main control centre for the autonomic nervous system, controls hunger, body temperature, aggression, and other aspects of metabolism and behaviour
parasympathetic nervous system
opposite effect to sympathetic nervous system, slowing heart rate and breathing
sympathetic nervous system
sets off fight-or-flight reaction, increasing heart rate and breathing and releasing blood sugar from the liver to provide energy
autonomic nervous system
Part of the peripheral nervous system; made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic. Not under our conscious control
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