44 terms

PSYC Ch. 11

Emotion and Motivation
- Mental states or feelings associated with our evaluation of our experiences
Theories of Emotion
- Discrete emotion theory
- James- Lange + Cannon-Bard theory of emotion
- Two factor theory of emotion
Discrete emotions theory
- Humans experience only a small number of distinct emotions that combine in complex ways that are rooted in our biology
- Our emotional reactions to situations come before our thoughts about them
Primary Emotions
- Small number (perhaps 7) of emotions believed by some theorists to be cross-culturally universal
- the big 7: Happiness, Disgust, Sadness, Fear, Surprise, Contempt, Anger
-Secondary emotions: ex. "alarm" is a mixture of fear and surprised. "Hatred" mixture of anger and disgust
Cultural Differences
- Cultures differ in display rules: cross- cultural guidelines for how and when to express emotions
ex. Western cultures teach boys not to cry
ex. Wallace Friesen study : videotaped Japanese and American college students without their knowledge as they watched two different films.
- 1st film of a neutral travel scene (the control condition) and one of an incredibly gory film (the experimental film)
- American students reactions to both films were the same however the gory film for the Japanese was different. The students acted as tho they were happy to see the film
Real vs. Fake emotions
We can use certain components of facial expressions to help us distinguish real from fake emotions
Duchenne smile
genuine happiness, we see an upward turning of the corners of the mouth, along with a drooping of the eyelids and a crinkling of the corners of the eyes
Pan Am smile
- Marked by a movement of the mouth but not the eyes
- Derives from an old television commercial featuring the now defunct airline Pan Am, in which all of the flight attendants flashed obviously fake smiles
James- Lange theory of emotion
- Cognitive theory proposing that emotions result from our interpretations of our bodily reactions to stimuli
- ex. While hiking through the forest we come upon a bear. What happens next? Common wisdom tells us we become scared and then run away. Yet as James recognized, the link between fear and running away is only a correlation; this link doesn't demonstrate that our fear causes us to run away. James and Lange argue that: we're afraid because we run away.
- Our hearts pounding, our palms are sweating, and our feet our running- and then we conclude that we must be scared
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
- Theory proposing that an emotion- provoking event leads simultaneously to an emotion and to bodily reactions
- When we see a bear while hiking in the forest, the sight of that bear triggers being afraid and running at the same time
Two- Factor Theory of Emotion
- Theory proposing that emotions are produced by an undifferentiated state of arousal along with an attribution (explanation) of that arousal
-ex. Subroxin study and Bridge study
Bridge Study
- girl approaches guy on a bridge and off
- The wobbly bridge in the second condition presumably increased male students arousal, leading them to feel more intense romantic emotions
Lie detection methods
- Humans
- Polygraphs
- Guilty Knowledge test
Humans as lie detection
-People are good about other people being able to detect lies
- That someone is able to tell by looks when someone is lying (stuttering, no eye contact, fewer details)
-Typically little of no correlation between people's confidence in their ability to detect lies and their accuracy
- Chance accuracy (50/50)
Polygraph test
- Pinocchio response based on the assumption that people's bodily reactions supposedly give them away whenever they lie
Polygraph test: Controlled Question Test (CQT)
Most common way to construct a polygraph test. 3 Major types of yes/no questions:
1) Relevant questions
2) Irrelevant questions
3) Control questions
Relevant questions
"Did you do it?" questions, those bearing on the crime in question
ex. Did you rob the bank on the afternoon of August 16?
Irrelevant questions:
Those not bearing on the crime in question or on suspects' lies. Questions you already know the answer to
ex. Is your name Sam Jones?
Control questions:
Those reflecting probable lies. Typically inquire about trivial misdeeds about which most people will lie, especially under intense pressure
ex. Have you ever been tempted to steal anything from a store?
False positives
Although polygraph tests do better than chance at detecting lies, it yields a high rate of false positives
- biased against the innocent
Guilty Knowledge Test (harder to do but better than polygraph test)
- Premise that criminals harbor concealed knowledge about the crime that innocent people don't
- based on assumption that if you really are the one that did it your would know stuff about the crime
- Multiple-choice questions in which only one choice contains the object at the crime scene. if you know about one choice you are associated with crime
- low false-positive rate: misidentifies few innocent people as guilty
- high false-negative rate
you can know that they are expressing an emotion but you cant know why they are expressing it
What Happiness is good for
- May produce enduring physical and psychological benefits
- sense of how satisfied people are with life
Barbara Fredrickson's Broaden and build theory:
Happiness predisposes us to think more openly, allowing us to see the big picture we might have otherwise overlooked
- Optimism makes life easier
What makes us happy
1) Life events determine happiness
2) Money makes us happy
3)Happiness declines in old age
4) People on the west coast are happier
Things that DO lead to happiness
1) Marriage
4)Religion: religious people often feel connected to a larger community
5)Political affiliation: Republicans tend to be happier than Democrats
Forecasting Happiness
We're remarkably poor at affective forecasting: ability to predict our own and others happiness
- we display a durability bias: believe that both or good and bad moods will last longer than they do
Hedonic treadmill
the tendency for our moods to do adapt to external circumstances
- we begin life with a genetically influenced happiness "set point" from which we bounce up and down in response to short-term life events
Self- Esteem
A persons evaluation of their worth
A) single variable explanation: reduces complex problems, like depression or aggression, to one cause
B)low relationship to success
Realities of Self Esteem
- High self esteem is associated with greater initiative and persistence- that is a willingness to attempt new challenges and to stick with them even when the going gets rough
- Self- esteem is related to positive illusion: The tendencies to perceive ourselves more favorably than other do
Positive Psychology
- Subfield of psychology that emphasizes human strengths such as resilience, coping, life satisfaction, love and happiness
- Attempts to help people incorporate "character"
Motivation: when drives class
Refers to the drives- especially wants and needs- that propel us in specific directions
- When we are motivated to do something, like read, talk to a friend, avoid studying we're driven to move toward or away from that act
-While certain drives lead us to approach others lead to avoidance
-As we draw nearer a goal, avoidance outweighs approach
-Explains phenomena like difficulty finishing tasks or regretting prior commitments
Incentive theories propose the we are often motivated by positive goals
1) Intrinsic: internal goals : driven primarily to mater the material
2) Extrinsic : external goals: to get a good grade
-Some needs take precedence over others
-Primary (biological) and secondary (psychological) which lead us to......
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
Maslow's Hierarchy of needs
Our needs are arranged in a hierarchy or pyramid, with the most "basic" needs at the bottom. If our basic needs aren't satisfied, Maslow claimed, we can't progress up the hierarchy.
Hierarchy of needs in order
-Physiological needs (need to survive before you worry about the others)
-Safety needs
-Belonging needs
-Esteem needs (people telling you that your good at what you do)
-Self-actualization (hit the pinnacle where you know exactly what you are doing with your life, could me a religious experience)
Hunger and Eating
-The brain is the center for food cravings
-Lateral (initiating eating) and ventromedial (stopping eating) hypothalamus in conjunction with other parts
-Hormones also play a strong role
-Ghrelin communicates with the hypothalamus to increase hunger. When this is released you are hungry
Weight Gain and Obesity
-Leptin signals us to reduce appetite and increase the amount of energy used
-People with obesity lack Leptin
-We may have a set point that establishes a range of body fat and muscle mass we tend to maintain
-Mixed research support
-Genes also play a role in obesity
-.7-.9 correlation for identical twins' fat mass if raised together, .4-.7 if raised apart
-Likely a combination of many different genes
-Expectations and external cues' role
-Portion distortion (growing up having to finish your plate)
Eating Disorders
-Individuals with bulimia nervosa engage in recurrent binge eating, followed by efforts to minimize weight gain
-Most common eating disorder; affects 1-3% of US population
-Primarily female, report high levels of body dissatisfaction
-Anorexia nervosa is less common (0.5-1%) but more dangerous
-Individuals tend to become emaciated, often losing 25-50% of their body weight
-More culturally and historically universal than bulimia
Sexual Motivation
-Top two motivations are food and sex
-Sexual desire (libido) is influenced by genes, biology, and social and cultural factors
-Neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine appear to play a role
-Higher levels in serotonin higher level of sex drive
-Men desire sex more often while women experience more variability in their sex drive
Human Sexual Response
Sexual response cycle contains four phases:
1. Excitement phase
2. Plateau phase: tension is building
3. Orgasm (climax) phase: un-voluntary contractions of the muscles
4.Resolution phase: body returning to initial change
Sexuality and Culture
-As people age, the frequency of sex decreases but satisfaction does not
-Social norms help shape the way people express sexual desire
-Kissing in Western cultures
-Biting off eyebrows in Apinaly tribe of Brazil
-Premarital sex differs from culture to culture
Sexual Orientation
-Homosexual behavior has been documented in over 450 species
-Approximately 2.8% of males and 1.4% of females identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual
-APA sees same- sex attraction as a normal variation of human sexuality, and does not support use of therapy to change orientations. Very unethical to try and treat someone of homosexuality
-Evidence from twin studies show that genes influence sexual orientation
-Prenatal exposure to androgens has been implicated in sexual orientation
-Sexual orientation is most likely a complex interaction of genetic, biological, social, and cultural factors
Interpersonal Attraction
Influenced by a number of social factors:
Proximity- nearness
Similarity- "birds of a feather"
Reciprocity- give and take
Level of physical attraction has a lot of bearing if you like them or not
Sex Differences in Attractions
-Males place more emphasis on looks and younger mates; women, on financial resources and maturity
-Both place a premium on intelligence, dependability, and kindness
-Evolutionary vs social role models of explanation