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APUSH Unit IX
Terms in this set (63)
Charles A Lindbergh
First to fly a nonstop flight across the Atlantic.. He flew around the Eiffel Tower and arrived in Paris
A credit system by which goods already acquired are paid for in a series of payments at specified intervals
A few companies have control over a product's market; can affect price and competition, There were more mergers in the 1920's - 368 in 1924 and 1,245 in 1929 - than at any time since the heyday of combinations in the 1880's and 1890's. By 1930, the two hundred largest corporations controlled almost 50% of the non-banking corporate wealth in the United States. A single corporation rarely monopolized an entire industry; rather, this type of organization, in which a few large producers controlled the market of an industry, became the norm.
Teapot Dome Scandal
During the administration of President Harding, the Secretary of the Interior (Albert Fall) leased government land with oil at Teapot Dome, Wyoming and two places in California to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding. Fall was convicted of accepting bribes from the oil companies and became the first Cabinet official to be sent to prison
1923-1929 became president when Harding died of pneumonia. He was known for practicing a rigid economy in money and words, and acquired the name "Silent Cal" for being so soft-spoken. He was a true republican and industrialist. Believed in the government supporting big business.
American Indian's Citizenship Status
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to America's indigenous peoples, called "Indians" in this Act. (The Fourteenth Amendment already defined as citizens any person born in the U.S., but only if "subject to the jurisdiction thereof"; this latter clause was thought to exclude certain indigenous peoples.) The act was signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge on June 2, 1924.It was enacted partially in recognition of the thousands of Indians who served in the armed forces in WWI.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
A department in the Department of the Interior; managed the delivery of goods to Indian Reservations and the upkeep of those areas; highly corrupt which resulted in the theft or sabotage of most of the materials that were supposed to be transported.
League of Women Voters
An organization which encourages voting and citizen participation at all levels of government. The league is nonpartisan and does not support any party, issue, or candidate.
National Women Party
Congressional Union for Women Suffrage that was organized/founded by Alice Paul
A car; Provided for transportation, making cities more accessible from rural areas, also provided a place for young loves to run away to
Federal Highway Act
(1956) Eisenhower's highway construction plan; Was designed to move the military quickly and more efficiently from coast to coast; Became more popular as Americans fell more and more in love with the automobile
A dominant source of entertainment and news distribution in the 1920s and 1930s, the radio was the cutting technology of the era. It was also an easy way for ideas and values to spread throughout the United States at this time.
Black leader during the 1920s who founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
More Mexicans hired to work on railroads following National Reclamation Act (1902), given less money than other ethnic group
Puerto Rican Immigrants
In the 1920's, a shift in Puerto Rico's economy from sugar to coffee created labor surplus, who moved to American in search of new jobs. They found jobs in factories, hotels, restaurants, and domestic service, also receiving low wages like the Mexican immigrants. Though most of them remained lower class individuals, some became doctors, lawyers, and business owners.
Women in the 1920's Labor Force
Women were becoming a part of the labor force. Women worked as nurses, teachers, typists, bookkeepers, filing clerks, etc. Some women joined the workforce to help support their family's economic needs.
A symbol of women's expanding public role in America. Social and sexual norms were changing and "the flapper" represented these changes through their style of dress, their "immoral" behavior, and their rejection of the older generation's expectations of what it means to be a "lady"
Ku Klux Klan
An organization of white supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population in the United States. Expressed beliefs in respect for the American woman and things purely American [anti-immigrant]. Strongest periods were after the Civil War, a resurfacing in 1915 [on Stone Mountain, GA.] continuing through the 1920s, and another upsurge in the 1990s.
Emergency Quota Act of 1921
1921 legislation that limited immigration to 3% of the people of their nationality living in the US in 1910
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
Immigrants whose murder convictions provoked controversy
The Scopes Trial
John T. Scopes was arrested for breaking Tennessee law by going against the Butler Act and teaching evolution in the classroom. After 8 days he was found guilty and fined $100, - it's illegal to teach evolution in schools (fundamentalism)
attracted both blacks and whites struggling with eco insecurity; swayed by pageantry and closeness to God offered by churches; used modern advertising techniques
Form of entertainment that became very popular during the Great Depression because it was inexpensive and allowed people to escape the realities of the Great Depression.
a ball game played with a bat and ball between two teams of 9 players
18th Amendment, A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
A famous Chicago gangster who made a fortune ($60 million in one year) off of bootlegging, and "murdered" his way to the top of the crime network, buying off public officials, the police, and judges. He was not convicted of any wrongdoing, however, until a judge in a federal court convicted him of income-tax evasion and sent him to jail in 1931.
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe, A group of American writers that rebelled against America's lack of cosmopolitan culture in the early 20th century. Many moved to cultural centers such as London in Paris in search for literary freedom. Prominent writers included T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Ernest Hemingway among others.
a period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Name for the 1920s, because of the popularity of jazz-a new type of American music that combined African rhythms, blues, and ragtime
1928 presidential election
Republicans nominated Hoover, while Al Smith ran for Democratic nomination; Smith was spirited but Hoover emphasized national prosperity under Republicans and won election by large margin of electoral votes
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
Stock Market Crash
Another leading component to the start of the Great Depression. The stock became very popular in the 1920's, then in 1929 in took a steep downturn and many lost their money and hope they had put in to the stock.
Parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas that were hit hard by dry topsoil and high winds that created blinding dust storms; this area of the Great Plains became called that because winds blew away crops and farms, and blew dust from Oklahoma to Albany, New York., 1930's
(1929-1933) The New York Stock Market Crashes October 29, 1929 "Black Tuesday". The 20th Amendment is passed and added and the 21st Amendment is passed by 1933.
Shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression; the name given to them shows that the people blamed Hoover directly for the Depression.
The Tariff Act of 1930, otherwise known as the Smoot-Hawley Tariff or Hawley-Smoot Tariff, was an act sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
Bonus Expeditionary Force
Thousands of World War I veterans, who insisted on immediate payment of their bonus certificates, marched on Washington in 1932; violence ensued when President Herbert Hoover ordered their tent villages cleared.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Court Packing Plan, Recession of '37, Quarantine Speech, Hitler marches into Austria & Czechoslovakia , "Cash & Carry", WW II begins w/ invasion of Poland, Battle of Britain, 1933-1941
20th Amendment to the Constitution
Sets terms and sessions of executive and legislative branches ("lame duck").
1933. Banks could not collect loans, meet withdrawal demands, runs on banks
National Bank Holiday
On Roosevelt's first night in office he told his Secretary he wanted an emergency banking bill ready for congress in less than five days. The following afternoon Roosevelt declared a national bank holiday temporarily closing all banks. Which stopped people from withdrawing more money from already bankrupt banks.
Emergency Banking Relief Bill
(FDR) 1933, gave the President power over the banking system and set up a system by which banks would be reorganized or reopened, HUNDRED DAYS STARTS
Roosevelt's fireside chats
informal radio chats delivered by President FDR during Great Depression; served as sources of comfort and hope to Americans.
First Hundred Days
This term refers to March 4 to June 16, 1933. During this period of dramatic legislative productivity, FDR laid out the programs that constituted the New Deal. Today, presidents are often measured by their actions in the same period of time
A small group of young reform-minded intellectuals responsible for writing FDR's speeches and authoring much of the New Deal legislation.
National Recovery Administration
1933: June 13th, Congress passed the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA), Government agency that was part of the New Deal and dealt with the industrial sector of the economy. It allowed industries to create fair competition which were intended to reduce destructive competition and to help workers by setting minimum wages and maximum weekly hours.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
(FDR) 1933 and 1938, Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of their products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.
Civilian Conservation Corps
a public work relief program for unemployed men so they have jobs. The men worked on jobs related to conservation and development of natural resources
Public Works Administration
(FDR) 1935 Created for both industrial recovery and for unemployment relief. Headed by the Secretary of Interior Harold L. Ickes, it aimed at long-range recovery and spent $4 billion on thousands of projects that included public buildings, highways, and parkways.
Father Charles Coughlin
A Catholic priest from Michigan who was critical of FDR on his radio show. His radio show morphed into being severely against Jews during WWII and he was eventually kicked off the air, however before his fascist (?) rants, he was wildly popular among those who opposed FDR's New Deal.
Dr. Francis Townsend
Advanced the Old Age Revolving Pension Plan, which proposed that every retired person over 60 receive a pension of $200 a month (about twice the average week's salary). It required that the money be spent within the month, American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
Second New Deal
Some thought the first New Deal (legislation passed in 1933) did too much and created a big deficit, while others, mostly the elderly, thought it did not do enough. Most of the 1933 legislation was ineffective in stopping the Depression, which led F. D. R. to propose a second series of initiatives in 1935, referred to the Second New Deal.
Works Progress Administration
May 6, 1935- Began under Hoover and continued under Roosevelt but was headed by Harry L. Hopkins. Provided jobs and income to the unemployed but couldn't work more than 30 hours a week. It built many public buildings and roads, and as well operated a large arts project.
Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Federal Theater, Arts, Music, and writer's projects
The Federal Theatre Project (1935-1939), one of four arts projects created under the Works Progress Administration (WPA), embodied the possibilities and flaws of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's early response to the Great Depression. In addition to providing assistance to show people, the Federal Theatre Project sought to bring meaningful theater to the populace, while simultaneously altering and expanding the relationship between the government and the arts. Similar to other New Deal relief programs, attacks were waged on the Federal Theatre Project by opponents who questioned this growing role of government in the lives of individuals and the art it produced
National Labor Relations Wagner Act
(FDR) A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-management relations. , Made sure workers were treated and payed well and not getting abused by their business. this law created the National Labor Relations Board to enforce the law and supervise shop elections
United Auto Worker's Strike of 1936
In December 1936, autoworkers at General Motors' (GM) plants across Michigan staged multiple sit-down strikes, the longest of which lasted 44 days. The workers originally demanded that GM recognize their union, the United Autoworkers of America (UAW) as the sole bargaining agent for all GM employees. The autoworkers also demanded that GM end all discriminatory practices against its workers and relax efforts to speed up production. The strike had significant financial repercussions for GM and its success inspired unions and workers across the country and world to stand up for their rights. At the end of the 44-day strike, GM agreed to recognize the UAW as the sole bargaining agent for all of its employees in the plants where the workers had struck. The company also agreed to end discrimination and increase hourly pay by five cents.
legislation passed in 1934 in the United States in an attempt to secure new rights for Native Americans on reservations. Its main provisions were to restore to Native Americans management of their assets (mostly land); to prevent further depletion of reservation resources; to build a sound economic foundation for the people of the reservations; and to return to the Native Americans local self-government on a tribal basis. The objectives of the bill were vigorously pursued until the outbreak of World War II. Although the act is still in effect, many Native Americans question its supposed purpose of gradual assimilation; their opposition reflects their efforts to reduce federal condescension in the treatment of Native Americans and their cultures
Tennessee Valley Authority
1933. TVA was one of the most ambitious of Roosevelt's New Deal measures. This innovative effort at regional planning resulted in the building of a serious of damns in seven states to control floods, ease navigation, and produce electricity. Although critics lamented the cost of the project and its impact on the environment and certain local communities, it went far toward bringing one of the most underdeveloped parts of the country into the modern era.
Roosevelt's court packing plan
Supreme Court declared FDR's New Deal unconstitutional. As a response, FDR attempted to pack (add more justice to) the SC. His goal was to make his New Deal viewed as constitutional.
A group of nine black youths who rode the train illegally and, when found, were quickly convicted falsely of raping two white women on a train. During the trial, these boys had no legal representation, and were quickly sentenced to death by a white jury. However, the Communist Party was able to overturn the ruling after several years, during which many of the boys were in jail.
A. Philip Randolph
Randolph, a leading civil rights organizer, observed that employers often discriminated against African American workers (saving the higher paying jobs and promotions for white workers). Randolph organized a March on Washington campaign and threatened to lead a nation-wide strike where African American employees would walk off of the job to protest workplace discrimination.
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