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Adolescence Exam 2
Adolescent Psychology Exam 2
Terms in this set (210)
Of special concern is the way Sex is displayed where?
What is "Developing a Multifaceted Sexual Identity"?
Mastering emerging sexual feelings and forming a sense of sexual identity
Is it straight-forward to assess sexual attitudes and behavior from an Adolescent?
In a study of 482 18-25 year olds conducted by Feldman et. al. in 1990, what was the progression of sexual behaviors? (Four)
- Oral Sex
In a study of 482 18-25 year-olds conducted by Feldman et. al. in 1990, what sexual behavior was being engaged in earlier by heterosexual adolescents?
What percentage of 12th graders had experienced sexual intercourse according to a recent US survey?
What percentage of 9th graders had experienced sexual intercourse according to a recent US survey?
What was the prevalent gender and difference in percentage between 12th grade heterosexual males and females who had experienced sexual intercourse?
Males by 2%
What was the prevalent gender and difference in percentage between 9th grade heterosexual males and females who had experienced sexual intercourse?
Males by 10%
What 2 high school grade levels presented that heterosexual Females had more likely experienced sexual intercourse than Males?
10th and 11th grades
Are Adolescent males or females more likely to say that they have had sexual intercourse and are sexually active?
Are Adolescent males or females more likely to describe sex as an enjoyable experience?
Are Adolescent males or females more likely to initiate sex?
Varies by ethnic group in the US
What ethnicity of adolescents are more likely to experience their first sexual act earlier in life?
What ethnicity of adolescents are more likely to experience their first sexual act later in life?
What sexual act is now a common occurrence among Adolescents?
What sexual act is now occurring outside an intimate, loving relationship by adolescents?
What is Oral Sex becoming more prevalent among adolescents?
The belief that Oral is not Sex
Between the ages of 15 and 19, what ages are Males more likely to have engaged in oral sex?
15 and 17
Between the ages of 15 and 19, what ages are Females more likely to have engaged in oral sex?
Between the ages of 15 and 19, what ages are Males and Females equally likely to have engaged in oral sex?
16 and 19
Why does teenage sexual initiation vary by culture and gender in the US?
Linked to cultural values and customs
What are Sexual Scripts?
A stereotyped pattern of role prescriptions for how individuals should behave sexually
What is the Male Adolescent Sexual Script?
Make sexual advances
What is the Female Adolescent Sexual Script?
Set the limits of the Male Sexual Overture
Are Adolescents emotionally prepared to handle sexual experiences?
No, especially during early adolescence
Early sexual activity is linked to what 3 risky behaviors?
-School Related Problems
What 4 Contextual Factors create Risk for Sexual Problems during Adolescence?
- SES Status
What places teenage females at higher risk of pregnancy?
- Having an older, sexually active sibling
- Having an older, pregnant or nursing sibling
What 3 factors are linked to adolescents being sexually active at 15 years of age?
- Not feeling close to their parents
- Low self-esteem
- Watching TV extensively
What are 2 cognitive risk factors for sexual risk-taking in Adolescence?
- Attention Problems
Roughly what percentage of heterosexual individuals have experienced intercourse by age 18?
T/F - Most individuals have experienced intercourse by the end of emerging adulthood (age 25).
What is the average age for males to marry?
What is the average age for females to marry?
What percentage of emerging adults have had only one partner in the past year?
Are emerging adults or young adults more likely to have had intercourse with 2+ individuals?
Do emerging adults or young adults typically have sex more frequently?
Who is more likely to engage in casual sex? Emerging adults or young adults?
What percentage of emerging adults claim they have "hooked up" and had a sexual experience during college?
The majority of homosexuals experience their first same-sex attraction, sexual behavior, and self-labeling during what growth period?
In what growth period do homosexuals typically enjoy their first long-term, same-sex relationship?
What are two labels more likely used by the scientific community to describe homosexuals?
- Individuals with same-sex attraction
- Individuals who have engaged in same-sex behavior
An individual's sexual attraction is likely determined by the weight of what 4 factors?
Homosexuals are typically likely to "come out" to which parent first?
Approximately what percentage of homosexual youth have come out to at least one sibling?
Is a sibling likely to be the first person a homosexual youth "comes out" to first?
Who is the first person a homosexual youth is likely to "come out" to?
A close friend
What is a common form of self-devaluation which is the process of hiding one's real social identity?
What are the 2 largest risks for a sexually active youth?
- Unintended Pregnancy
- Sexually transmitted disease
What are the 4 types of sexual problems typically associated with adolescence?
- Sexually transmitted disease
- Forcible sexual behavior
- Sexual Harrassment
Approximately how many adolescent girls in the US have a child before their 18th birthday?
What 3 reasons are given for adolescent pregnancy rates in the US, according to cross-cultural studies?
- Childbearing is described as an Adult Activity
- Clear messages about sexual behavior
- Access to family planning services
In what year did Adolescent pregnancy fall to a record low?
What 3 reasons are given for adolescent pregnancy rates falling 30% since 1991?
- Increased contraceptive use
- Fear of STD's
- School/community health classes
- Greater hope for future
What percent of abortions are attributed to 15-19 year olds?
What percent of abortions are attributed to children 15 years old or less?
Less than 1%
What 3 assumptions justify legislation mandating parental consent for adolescent abortions?
- High risk of harm from abortion
- Adolescent inability to make adequately formed decision
- Benefits of parental involvement
What are 3 unintended consequences for Adolescent Pregnancy?
- Health risks for baby and mother
- Low baby birth weight
- Mothers drop out of school
What are 3 possible consequences of having a baby with low birth weight?
- Childhood Illness
- Neurological Problems
- Infant Mortality
Are more or less adolescent fathers involved with their children?
What are 3 consequences of a child having an adolescent father?
- Father has less income
- Father has lower intelligence
- Father likely to have more children
What 11 recommendations did John Conger make to reduce teen pregnancy rates?
- Sex education and family planning
- access to contraception
- Life options approach
- Broad community involvement and support
- Teen Outreach Program
- Girls, Inc
- Growing Together
- Will Power/Won't Power
- Taking Care of Business
- Health Bridge
Who crafted a major theory dealing with Moral Development?
What is a key concept to understand moral development?
What is internalization?
Developmental change from where behavior is externally controlled to behavior that is controlled by internal standards and principles.
What are Kohlberg's 3 levels of Moral Development?
1. Preconventional Reasoning
2. Conventional Reasoning
3. Postconventional Reasoning
What are the 2 levels of Kohlberg's Preconventional Reasoning stage of Moral Development?
- Individualism, Instrumental Purpose, and Exchange
How does Kohlberg describe Level 1: Preconventional Reasoning's Stage 1: Heteronomous Morality?
Moral thinking is often tied to punishment
How does Kohlberg describe Level 1: Preconventional Reasoning's Stage 2: Individualism, Instrumental Purpose, and Exchange?
Individuals pursue their own interests but allow others to do the same
What are the 2 levels of Kohlberg's Conventional Reasoning stage of Moral Development?
- Mutual Interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
- Social systems morality
How does Kohlberg describe Level 2: Conventional Reasoning's Stage 3: Mutual Interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity?
- Individuals value trust, caring, loyalty to others
- Children and adolescents often adopt their parents' moral standards
How does Kohlberg describe Level 2: Conventional Reasoning's Stage 4: Social Systems Morality?
Understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty
What are the 2 levels of Kohlberg's Post-Conventional Reasoning stage of Moral Development?
- Social contract or utility and individual rights
- Universal ethical principles
How does Kohlberg describe Level 3: Post-Conventional Reasoning's Stage 5: Social Contract or Utility and Individual Rights?
Values, Rights, and Principles transcend the law
How does Kohlberg describe Level 3: Post-Conventional Reasoning's Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principles?
Person has developed moral standards based upon universal human rights
What are the 4 Influences on Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development?
- Cognitive Development
- Exposure to appropriate social experiences
- Peer Interaction
- Parent/Child Experiences
What are 7 criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development?
- Moral Reasoning can always be a shelter for Immoral Behavior
- Fault quality of research and how moral development is assessed
- Hypothetical dilemmas are not common life experiences
- Doesn't generalize cross-culturally
- Does not adequately reflect relationships and concern for others
- Downplayed Social-Conventional Reasoning
- Conventional Moral Reasoning Rules are arbitrary and subject to individual judgement
What are 2 perspectives proposes by Carol Gillian in critique of Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development?
- Justice Perspective
- Care Perspective
What is Carol Gillian's Justice Perspective?
Moral perspective that focuses on the rights of the individual
What is Carol Gillian's Care Perspective?
Views people in terms of connectedness with others and emphasizes interpersonal communication, relationships with others, and concern for others
What are the 3 basic concepts which Behaviorists believe are responsible for moral behavior?
What 2 categories do Social Cognitive theorists emphasize for moral behavior?
- Moral Competence
- Moral Performance
How do Social Cognitive theorists define Moral Competence?
The ability to produce moral behaviors
How do Social Cognitive theorists define Moral Performance?
Performing moral behaviors in specific situations
What are 3 aspects of Pro-Social behavior?
How is Empathy experienced?
As an emotional state
Which aspect of Pro-Social behavior has the cognitive component of Perspective Taking?
About what age do people develop an Empathy for others living in unfortunate circumstances?
What is a Moral Exemplar?
A person who has lived a Morally Exemplary life
What are 4 aspects of a Moral Exemplar?
- High moral personality
- High moral identity
- High moral character
- Values that reflect moral excellence and commitment
What are 7 common characteristics of parents who produce Morally Exemplary children?
- Warm and Supportive rather than Punitive
- Use Inductive Discipline
- Provide opportunities to learn others' perspectives and feelings
- Involve children in family decision-making and process of thinking about moral decisions
- Model moral behaviors and thinking themselves, and provide opportunities for children to do so themselves
- Describe what moral behaviors are expected and why
- Foster an internal morality instead of an external one
What is the School Hidden Curriculum?
Conveyed by the moral atmosphere at every school
What is Character Education?
Teaching students a basic moral literacy to prevent them from engaging in immoral behavior and doing harm to themselves or others
What is Values Clarification?
Helping people to clarify what is important to them, what is worth working for, and their life's purpose
What is Cognitive Moral Education?
Concept that students should learn to value things like democracy and justice as their moral reasoning develops
What is Service Learning?
Promotes Social Responsibility and service to the community
What are 4 reasons children give for Cheating?
- Getting high grades
- Time Pressures
- Poor Teaching
- Lack of Interest
What does research say is a strong influencing factor on whether a student Cheats or not?
Power of the situation
What are Values?
Beliefs and Attitudes about the way things should be
What do Values involve?
What is Important to the Individual who holds them
What dimension of Morality do Values Reflect?
In the Past 3 decades, what major shift in Values has taken place?
Increased concern for personal well-being
Decreased concern for well-being of others, especially the disadvantaged
What results from Reciprocal Socialization?
How can interactions between family members change?
Depending upon who is present
What 5 factors causes Parent and Adolescent relationship shifts?
- Puberty enhanced cognitive abilities and idealistic thought
- Conflict increases as expectations are renegotiated
- Alignment with peers results in increased independence and new ideas by adolescents
- Assessments of work, marriage, personal health, and economic stability influence parents
- Parenting patterns change due to early or later childbearing experiences
What is Authoritarian Parenting?
Parent-Centered, Top Down Management, Restrictive, Punitive
What is Authoritative Parenting?
Rules with negotiation, corrective guidance, nurturance
What is Neglectful Parenting?
Uninvolved, uninterested, unconcerned
What is Indulgent Parenting?
Involvement without guidance, avoiding management responsibility
What style of parenting is associated with positive outcomes in Western Cultures?
What style of parenting is associated with positive outcomes in some ethnic groups, including Asian-American families?
Which parent continues to take a majority of household responsibility in US culture?
What is the Father's typical role in US culture?
Actively care for children to improve child outcomes
What does cooperative parenting influence?
Adolescent's positive feelings toward both males and females
What leads to conflict between parents and adolescents?
Establishing boundaries for independent and personal values
What 4 groups are expected to have strong autonomy?
- Democratic Parents
- White Adolescents
- Adolescents of Single Parents
How is Autonomy achieved earlier and quicker in life?
Running away from home or going away to college
What 3 factors do early parent-child relationships influence later in life?
- Enduring Family Connections
The balance of what 2 needs allows an adolescent to safely explore the complexities of their environment?
- Emotional Support
What type of attachment is associated with a well balanced sense of self-acceptance, self-esteem, and self-efficacy?
When does a Disequalibrium in family life occur?
When emerging adults live or return to live at home
Family processes in sibling relationships reflect what?
Contradictory feelings and interests
Adolescents engage in more conflict with what type of peers?
What happens to sibling rivalries as children reach adulthood?
What order of child tends to be more serious and dominant with other siblings?
What is a characteristic of a Firstborn Child?
Serious and Dominant with other siblings
What order of child tends to be more social and enjoy better peer relationships?
What is a characteristic of a youngest child?
Tends to be more social and enjoy better peer relationships
What order of child is recognized as the "negotiator"?
What is a characteristic of a Middle-Born child?
Recognized as a negotiator and peacekeeper
What affect does equal availability of parent time and economic resources have on siblings?
Relationships tend to be more positive
What type of family typically produces adolescents with adjustment problems, yet they tend to cope?
What is more desirable in a troubled family situation when moving, changing schools, losing friendships, inept parenting, or subequent financial situations are likely to be severely disruptive?
Keeping an Unhappy Marriage
What is typical following a divorce?
Diminished parenting skills and companionable relationships
What 5 factors influence adolescent adjustment after a divorce?
- Adolescent adjustment before divorce
- Gender of Adolescent
- Timing of the Divorce
Do divorced mothers or fathers typically have an economic loss 2 to 5 times larger?
What 4 ways are Step-families characterized?
What 3 relationship types characterize Step-families?
Adolescent adjustment difficulties in a Step-Family situation are similar to those demonstrated where?
Adolescents in Divorced Families
What is Boundary Ambiguity?
A lack of understanding about responsibility for tasks
How does Boundary Ambiguity affect Adolescent Adjustment?
Do adolescents experience more adjustment difficulties in step-families or intact families?
Working parents question what in relation to adolescent adjustment?
Effects of their Job Commitments
Research shows that working mothers are not influencing what types of adolescent outcomes, per se?
What 2 effects does having a working mother, have on children?
-Socialization of adolescents for adult roles
- More Egalitarian view of gender roles
What 2 factors influence a Latchkey child to cope successfully with being home alone?
- If Parents Monitor the child's behavior
- Authoritarian Parenting skills to help children cope
What percentage of children in the US are adopted?
What is an influencing factor for behavioral problems among adopted children?
Parents have Lower Levels of Education
What type of adoptees have shown to have a lower likelihood to use mental health services?
Adopted children and adolescents are more likely to experience what in relation to non-adopted children?
Psychological and School-Related problems
What type of Adolescent Relations fill a requirement that cannot be addressed by parents or siblings?
Peer relations offer an adolescent what 3 things?
- Forum for expressing feelings
- Learning rules
- Establishing intimacy not achieved in other arenas
Peer interactions are influenced by what 2 things?
- Contexts in which they happen (school, home, etc)
- Individual differences among peers (shy, outgoing, etc.)
When do Peer Group Relationships increase?
Middle and Late Childhood
Peers contribute to what Context for Normal Development?
Who consciously and unconsciously influences the types of peer relationships established by adolescent children?
What influences later relationships with peers?
Early attachment histories
Who chooses the environments in which adolescents live, go to school, and recreate later in life?
Parents suggest strategies for what aspect of Adolescent Peer Relations?
Establishing and Maintaining Relationships
What is likely to be experienced after Peer Relationships are established?
Pressures to Conform
Pressure to conform has what consequences on an Adolescent?
Both beneficial and detrimental consequences
What are the 5 types of Peer Statuses?
- Popular Children
- Average Children
- Neglected Children
- Rejected Children
- Controversial Children
What are 5 characteristics of Popular Children?
- Good Listeners
What is a description of Average Children by their peers?
Average number of positive and negative nominations
How do peer view Neglected Children?
Not as a best friend, but not disliked either
What are 3 characteristics of Rejected Children?
- Disliked by Peers
What are 2 characteristics of Controversial Children?
- Nominated as both Best Friend and as Disliked
What 3 types of Children need to be monitored by Counselors and Psychologists?
- Neglected Children
- Rejected Children
- Controversial Children
Adolescents overcome deficits by what 3 methods?
- Becoming better listeners
- Learning how to join groups
- Demonstrating self-control of disruptive behavior
What are 2 elements of Social Cognition?
- Adolescents' ability to draw upon positive relationship-building behavior to establish good social problem-solving skills
- Interpret the social behavior of others
What are 6 Conglomerate strategies for improving social skills in Adolescents?
- Discussing rationale
- Describing acceptable alternatives
- Modeling appropriate skills
- Reinforcing demonstrations of self control
- Establishing skills in stress management
- Engaging in social problem solving or decision making
Responding successfully to threatening encounters with bullies requires what from adults?
What provides the opportunity for adolescents to develop intimacy with someone who comes from the same place and time, and someone who sees things from the adolescent perspective?
Friendship with Peers
Friendship provides what 6 elements for adolescents?
- Physical Support
- Ego Support
- Social Comparison
Who was the first to propose that adolescents require same-age friends to share intimacy, bolster well being, engage in light-hearted companionship, and promote social acceptance, tenderness, and sexual relations?
Harry Stalk Sullivan
Relationships with friends who are from markedly different age groups results in what type of behavior?
Groups provide adolescents with what?
Norms or Rules that all members are expected to follow
Groups provide adolescents with the opportunity to do what?
Take on roles to accomplish designated goals
How do Children often form their groups?
Based on chance
Less structured and larger than older groups
What are the 6 types of groups?
- Transitioning unisexual, early mixed-sex
- Fully mixed-sex
- Crowd disintegration
What is a Clique?
Close bonded group of friends
What is a Crowd?
Loosely formed group of individuals bonded by an interest
How do Cliques and Crowds contribute to adolescence? (3 things)
-Sense of Affiliation
- Positive Self-Esteem
- Support separate from Parents
What do Crowds contribute to Adolescence?
Opportunity to establish an identity
What do Crowds offer to an Adolescent?
Possibility of trying out different roles
What are Youth Organizations?
Important groups that facilitate adolescent development
What 3 things do Youth Organizations provide that facilitate Adolescent Development?
- High Standards
- Support Achievement
- Increase Adolescent Involvement in the Community
What do Programs that encourage Youth-Directed Entrepreneurial activities facilitate in Adolescents?
Youth Initiative and Enthusiasm
What gender typically associate with larger groups?
What gender engages in more competition and risk-taking?
What gender is more oriented toward interpersonal relationships and intimacy?
Peer Group Affiliation is often based on what 2 social factors?
- Social Class
Why might Ethnic Minority Youth depend on Peers?
For affiliation within the larger majority culture
What 8 functions do Dating and Romantic Relationships serve to an Adolescent?
- Sexual Experience
- Mate Selection
Early Dating helps Adolescents with what?
Establishing a sense of self and identifying acceptable behavior
First dates typically take place between what ages?
14 and 16 years of age
By what age have 90% of Adolescents typically dated?
16 years of age
What percentage of Adolescents have typically had a Romantic relationship by 10th Grade?
How much more time do 11th and 12th grade females spend with males as compared to 5th and 6th grade females?
10x's as many hours
How do High Levels of Emotion which accompany romance influence male and female adolescents?
Severe daily mood swings
What Love transition do adolescents experience typically with age?
Romantic Love to Affectionate Love
What 5 factors influence Intimate Relationships?
- Attachment History
- Death of a Parent
What 2 factors influence Courtship Processes?
- Gender Roles
- Cultural Demands
What are Dating Scripts?
Models that individuals use to guide dating interactions
What is the Male Dating Script described as?
What is the Female Dating Script described as?
What factors dictate when dating begins?
Values and Religious Beliefs of a Culture
In recent years, what has changed with Marriage Rates?
They have Declined
In Recent Years, Adults have started to do what when it comes to relationships?
Stay Single Longer, yet Still Date
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