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Dual Credit History Final Test
Terms in this set (196)
What was Europe like at end of WWII?
Divided Germany- soviet union took over Germany until the us took over, leads to the first clear signs between break between the soviet and the us allies. West germans were on us side and east side was on soviet
What was Truman's personality?
he was tough, he was a good bluffer
What were Stalin's goals?
he wanted to create a buffer between the Soviet Union and the western democracies.
What were the US beliefs at this time?
the US believes that Stalin is trying to take over the world.
What was Truman's cold war policy?
they stay the same
What is Containment?
this meant he was stopping the spread of communism form around the world
What did the Truman Doctrine do?
Promised he would give the US economic assistance that was threatened internally and externally by the Soviet Union.
What was The Marshall Plan?
this was a plan made by Truman this was a plan that is designed to help farmers and other businesses by giving them money so their economies could recover.
What is NATO?
North Atlantic Treaty Organization, this is a military alliance between the US, Canada and the democracies of Western Europe. US allies
How did the Soviets respond?
What happened when Hungary Rigged elections?
Soviet Union thinks they are defending themselves
What was the Warsaw pact?
combined military alliance and economic assistance package that the soviet union offered to the communist nations of Eastern Europe. This was the society's version of NATO
What is the UN?
worldwide peacekeeping organization. Created by the 5 good unions, stopped world war three
What is the Security council?
part of the UN that can actually take action
What happened with The Berlin Airlift?
Berlin seemed like a nice place to live but they wanted to go to West Berlin so they could escape communism. There was more of an opportunity to make money. East Germany cut off access to west Berlin so people would stop going there.This is where Truman said that they would fly the US planes to drop supplies to west Berlin. Truman wins
What was the Chinese Civil War?
this was going on before WWII, nationalist and communist were fighting about control. They stopped fighting to fight in WWII but continued once it was over
Who was Mao Tse-Tung?
communist victory in 1949
Truman "lost" China under his rule
led communist to victory and China became a communist nation
What happened in Taiwan?
where nationalist fled to when they lost the war with communist
How was Korea divided?
Korea had been divided by north and south.
What happened with the Korean Invasion?
North Korea invaded South Korea starting the Korean war
Who led the Push back to the 38th parallel?
America jumped in and pushed the north back.
What happened beyond the 38th parallel?
the US could have stopped but they didn't we kept on pushing them back
What started the War with China?
China attacks in Korea, this will continues for over 2 and a half years
How did Peace come about with the war in China?
both sides want to find a way to end fighting, they had a cease fire.
Why was the US so afraid of the Russians?
Soviet Union has nuclear weapons
How did the Truman administration react to the Red Scare?
Federal employees loyalty program, House Un American activities committee- they begin to investigate other American life to see how the communist has an influence on them, they were afraid that communist were slipping communist messages in movies, they started doing back checks on people involved in film scene
Ho were spies utilized?
Americans for the Soviet Union were spying on the United States.
Who was Alger Hiss?
a high-ranking American government official convicted of lying about his association with a known Communist
spy name in books, he was accused as being a spy by a spy, he was found not guilty for spying but he was found guilty for lying
Who were Ethel and Julius Rosenberg?
worked in the US atomic program, he was accused of selling weapon secrets to the Soviet Union by a man who was caught selling secrets to the soviet union. Ethel didn't work and she was accused of housing Soviet Union people.
What is McCarthyism?
this a bad thing, he never did anything, he outed 0 actual communists
Who was Joseph McCarthy?
the senate gave him his own committee, people though he was getting communist out of the US
What Tactics were used during the Red Scare?
Hearings- army hearing his popularity drops because of how he is treating them, Downfall- he believed that he was so powerful that he could do whatever he wanted do he went for the us army, hes calling member of the army and assuming them as being communist.
Were there any Positives from the McCarthy trials?
there wasn't much positive about McCarthy but they got some people from the Soviet Union
What was President Eisenhower's background?
he was a five star general, he's a general hero.
How did Eisenhower feel about the CIA?
liked the CIA, basically spying, he's going to make the CIA functional to where they actually have missions
What was Eisenhower's plan for Massive retaliation?
threatening to use nuclear weapons.
What was happening in Vietnam?
had been a French colony, they thought they would be free after WWII but they weren't so they rebelled.
What was significant about Dien Bien Phu?
the French lose this battle to Vietnam, this means they are about to become a communist colony
What was the Division in Vietnam?
north became communist and south became democracy.
Who was Ngo dinh diem?
Americans wanted democracy for vietnam. He wasn't a communist
What was the US's involvement in The middle east?
the US become more involved
Who was Nasser?
President of Egypt
What was the Suez Crisis?
British took Suez Canal from Egypt but US and Soviet pressured on side of Egypt and Egypt got it back
How did the US intervene in the Suez Crisis?
Eisenhower called them and told them not to invade Egypt
What was happening in Iran?
they were facing an internal rebellion
What happened in Guatemala?
Eisenhower wanted to overthrow the government.
failure to keep Cuba a communist nation, put on Eisenhower
What was Sputnik?
man made satellite made by Soviets. People thought that these were listening to them and collecting information
What was the Missile gap?
What happened with theSpace program?
What was the Ban on atmospheric tests?
Eisenhower wants to ban atmospheric, these tests created more tension
What were Negotiations on Atmospheric tests?
Roosevelt wants to meet in aris to sign a treaty to ban atmospheric testing
What was the U2 spy plane?
the plan to ban atmospheric testing was ruined by this plane, this was a plane that would fly over Soviet Russia and it would take pictures and collect information. In 1960 one was shot down. The plan with the Russians didn't go through because of this
What was President Kennedy's Philosophy on the Cold War?
he wanted to stop the spread of Communism with the military.
What kind of Military build up took place?
Kennedy is responsible for passive build of military weapons and supplies.
What type of Outreach programs existed?
he did these to get young people involved his most famous one is the Peace Court, it is still around today. These were made to convince people that the US was great and that you shouldn't be on the communist side.
What was The Berlin Wall?
built around west Berlin, another act to cut off East Germany from West Berlin. There were two walls and in between those walls there was no mans land where you die from getting shot or blown up.
What was happening in Cuba?
this is Kennedys obsession, this was the biggest failure of the cold war bc of Eisenhower, Kennedy wants to fix it to make it a non communist government.thousands fled from Cuba to the US mostly to Florida. Castro was the Communist leader in Cuba.
What was The Bay of Pigs?
this was made to overthrow Castro and his communist government. The US military would train Cuban refugees and they would begin a revolution that would overthrow Castro. Castro's army was waiting at the beach for the refugees,
What happened with The Cuban Missile Crisis?
communist army put missiles in Cuba. Kennedy surrounded Cuba which is what he called quarantining Cuba. Soviet backed down which cause the nuclear war not to happen
What were Kennedy's thoughts on Vietnam?
Kennedy continued Eisenhower's goal.
What was the Rebellion in Vietnam like?
at least 12 groups that were rebelling the us government in Vietnam. The most dangerous group was called the Vietcong. Monks were protesting the government mostly by setting themselves on fire to protest Ngo Diem.
Why was Ngo Dinh Diem assassinated?
the US decided that we needed to get rid of him. The US didn't kill him but they told the CIA to take away he protective forces. That night they killed Diem.
What happened with the Vietnamese Military advisors?
they were not in charge since Diem was dead. They wanted to help the military to end the revolution.
What was President Johnson's policy on Vietnam?
What was Johnson's Philosophy in Vietnam?
his philosophy in Vietnam was not to lose.
What was the Tonkin Gulf Resolution?
a resolution adopted by Congress in 1964, giving the president broad powers to wage war in Vietnam
to ensure that we don't lose, give the president the power to do whatever he thought were necessary to fight the war in Vietnam. He get 600,000 thousand American soldiers serving in Vietnam
What is meant by Americanization?
600,00 American soldiers serving in Vietnam.
What was Rolling thunder?
bomb north Vietnam, dropped more here than in Europe
What were some of the Reasons why the war was difficult?
1)not knowing who the enemy was, the Vietcong they don't wear uniforms they are part time soldiers.if you cant detect the enemy then you'd kill more people 2) the whole VC strategy was to kill and injure as many American people as possible. 3) war was televised. 4) VC fighters believed they were fighting for the independence of Vietnam.
What was the Tet Offensive?
1968 vietcong surprise attacked major Vietnamese cities during national holiday after we called for peace, we won though
breaks Americans willingness to fight in the war, VC and north Vietnamese attacked every American held cities in Vietnam. Johnson had said that America was winning before this had happened. After this Americans didn't think the war was good
Why did the Vietnam War lose support?
because the Americans want the war to be over.
Who won the Election of 1968?
Nixon was elected to get us out of Vietnam
What was Nixon's stance on Vietnam / peace with honor?
Nixon is amoral which means he will do whatever it takes to make Vietnam sign a treaty saying that America didn't lose
What is Vietnamization?
putting south Vietnam in charge of fighting the war, which is basically abandoning them to north Vietnam
What happened with Cambodia and Laos?
Nixon illegally invaded and bombed these countries to cut off the supplies to the VC. We were not at war with countries
What type of Bombing occurred during the Vietnam War?
anti personnel bombs which were bombs that drop smaller bombs and blow up more people. Nixon didn't care if he was bombing civilians so we could have the treaty signed
What did the Treaty state?
north Vietnam signed the treaty, 1) NV would leave SV alone 2) we promised that we would leave south Vietnam.
what happened when the US withdrew?
north Vietnam invaded south Vietnam while we're leaving south Vietnam, the NV beats the SV very fast. America lost the Vietnam war even though we signed a treaty.
What was Nixon's Philosophy on power politics?
Nxon philosophy was treated nations differently depending on their power. Meaning he is nice to nations that are powerful and push round the weak nations. He wants to be nice to Russia
What was significant about Chile?
this was a weak nation that Nixon would push around, 1969 they chose a leader that we thought was a communist Nixon used the CIA to overthrow him and replace him with a different leader.
What is a Detente?
this was to relax tension between the Soviet Union and the US. This was very effective.
What happened when Nixon visited china?
China broke away from the Soviet Union, which is when the US wanted to sweep in and become nicer to China so that this will make the Soviet Union a little nervous. Nixon goes to China and the Soviets don't like it
What happened when Nixon visited the Soviet Union?
Soviets are trying to be nice with the US and they invite Nixon to go to Russia
What was the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty?
the tension was down so much that there was a treaty that said the mount of nuclear weapons each country can have.
How did Ppresident Carter handle the cold war?
the exact opposite of Nixon. He was moral but not effective.
What was the Human Rights Agenda
base human rights on an agenda, he wants to break free from Truman rights.
What happened with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan?
Carter has to deal with this. They voted for Afghanistan to become a non Soviet country, so the Soviets invaded them so that they would stay a part of the Soviet Union.
What happened with the 1980 Olympics?
Carter boycotts the 1980 Olympics to protest, they were held in Moscow.
What was the Grain Embargo?
Carter stopped the sale of grain to the Soviet Union
What type of Assistance was provided to the Afghan rebels?
Congress voted to sell weapons to the Afghan rebels. They were rebelling against the communists
What was the Iran Hostage Crisis?
Iran militants held 55 Americans hostage in the US embassy for 450 days. Iran becomes our number 1 enemy. Carter lost the election and once Reagan was elected they set the hostages free
Why did Reagan call the Soviet Union The evil empire?
Reagan's philosophy was that the Soviet Union was evil and we needed to take it down.
What happened with the Military build up?
Reagan starts to build up because he made an accidental announcement on live radio saying the bombing of the Soviet Union had started.
Why were Nicaragua, Elsalvador, and Grenada significant?
we invaded these countries because they were helping Soviet Union's build airplanes and port.
Who was Gorbachev?
he won the Nobel Peace Prize, he wanted relaxed tension, he's trying to change the Soviet Union for the better.he was a communist dictator.
What was the Strategic Defense Initiative?
Reagan's big idea, was a plan to put satellites in space in geosynchronous orbit that was armed with lasers that can shoot down and or deflect incoming Soviet missiles.
What was the Inf treaty?
Gorbachev wants treaties to buy time till Reagan send his military into the Soviet Union. Reagan and Gorb. are going to meet to determine a treaty. Gorbachev wants Reagan to stop giving money to the sdi. They agreed to this treaty which was limiting the amount of missiles in Europe.
What lead to the Democracy movement in eastern Europe?
communist countries start talking about bringing democracy to Europe. They started becoming Democracies.
Who was president when the cold war came to an end?
George Bush Sr.
Why did the Berlin wall come down?
because east Germany was now a democracy.
Who was Boris Yeltsin?
He became the first president of Russia after the fall of the Soviet Union
Who was WEB DuBois?
he said african americans should demand political equality so the economic equality
What is the NAACP?
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
no racist laws, focus on courts to prove to judges that you're right.
What happened with World war 2 veterans?
they came home from the war determined to end fascism and racism, they would rescue African American men from lynchings.
What was significant about President Truman and civil rights?
only president that was briefly part of the KKK, which is surprising considering he desegregated the US military, Truman supported and signed the Civil Rights Movement of 1948.
Who was Emmett Till?
he grew up outside of the segregated south, his mother sent him to Mississippi. He said to his friends that he had a white girlfriend in Detroit. His friends dared him to go talk to a women, the women called the police and they went to his house and he was arrested,several men they took him to a garage where they beat him up and shot him in the head and threw his body in the river and sank his body, the body resurfaced and they had a funeral where they had an open casket funeral so they could show the rest how bad it was.
What was Brown v. Board of Education?
segregation in public school is unconstitutional. Southern states resisted.
What as the Montgomery Bus boycott?
began when Rosa Parks refused to give up her set to a white man. African Americans didn't ride the buses, because of this the city lost money. Martin Luther King Jr. leads the movement
What was the Southern Christian Leadership Conference?
King was a leader of this. He turns this organization into a civil rights movement,this was good because it made it seem like it was a Christian movement
What is Non-violent resistance?
King practiced this. This is designed to provoke violence on the other side but they come back non violence.
What happened in Birmingham?
the peaceful protest went here because they know they will get a violent reaction.they were arrested, they later let them go but they keptp King this is where he writes his Birmingham speech, JFK later gets King out of prison.
What was the March on washington?
they invite King to come say his speech. This is where he gives his I have a dream speech. This created more support for civil rights for white voters outside the south.
What happened in Selma?
they took place in 1965, from Selma,Alabama to Montgomery. Hundreds of protesters crossed a bridge and on the other side of the bridge there are police officers on the other side told them to go home they stood their ground and the police started to beat up the first 30-40 men.
What were the details behind Martin Luther King's Assassination?
he was staying in a segregated hotel, he went out on his balcony he was shot by a gunman that was waiting for him. He was killed by a man named James Earl Ray.
Who were Freedom riders?
they were protesting in bus waiting rooms where only white people could wait
What was the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee?
they would sit at the counters where only white people were allowed
What was the Freedom Summer?
effort to register African Americans to vote in Mississippi
Who was Murdered during the Freedom Summer?
3 civil rights voters in Mississippi were murdered, two victims were white.
What happened at the Battle of Oxford?
University of Mississippi, a man won the right to attend this university. Students revolt and shot a marshall and a reporter.
What did Lyndon Johnson achieve?
he is blamed for making Vietnam as bad as it was, he believed in the Civil Rights Movement.
What was the 24th amendment?
outlawed poll taxes, which are taxes to keep african americans from voting
What was the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
attempted to eliminate all forms of discrimination in the united states.
What was the Voting Rights Act of 1965?
attempted to eliminate all the racist barriers to voting.
Who was Malcolm X and the Nation of Islam?
he was a small time criminal and was in jail for some time, while he was in prison he was introduced to Islam and he become a part of Islamic faith.he is a powerful speaker. They don't promote peaceful protests but they don't promote violent protests either.most active in Chicago.
What caused Riots?
they think this movement is bad because they are causing riots
What was The Black Power Movement?
made white people uncomfortable, they scared white suburban americans.
Who were The Black Panthers?
began in Oakland, California, they were a group that patrolled African American neighborhoods watching the policemen.
What was the Women's Rights Movement?
women were expected to conform to certain standards. They staged non- violent protests, this is where the feminist movement comes from. Rights were improved
What was the Hispanic American Rights Movement?
economic discrimination. They were sometimes denied voting rights but mostly economic rights
Who was Cesar Chavez?
important civil rights leader he created union for migrant farm workers.he is going to use non violence resistance to get the attention on how they are treated, the staged their strikes during harvest time.
What was The American Indian Movement?
no economic opportunities, they had a strike where they took over the alcatraz island for a month until congress changes laws to help the Native Americans.
What created Conformity?
TV is the greatest form of conformity.
How were Men supposed to conform?
they were supposed yo earn money and support the family and buy a house and have money for school and live in a safe place.
How were Women supposed to conform?
cook and clean, raise the kids, create a nice comforting home for the husband to come home to.
How did Suburbs contribute to conformity?
this will make people want to conform to the standards of that community.
What was Levittown?
this was one of the first suburbs. This man hd this idea that he could mass produce homes and sell them and make money.
What was The baby boom?
biggest generation in history. People started to have more kids because people around them were
What is Consumerism?
desire to have new things because they are new
How did Television contribute?
the ads were designed to tell you how to better yourself so you would want them, cooler, more attractive, seem more successful, or happier.
What happened with Cars and car culture?
this was a decade where people were obsessed with their cars. If you had a nice car people thought you were doing well. Drive ins became a big thing.
What was happening with Youth Culture?
they have a distinct culture apart from their parents
What was the view on College?
parents wanted to send their kids to college because that guarantees them into middle class. More colleges were being made because of this.college use to be affordable.
What were thoughts on Rock and roll?
most popular music among americans.
How did people feel about Early rock and roll musicians?
racism held back rock and roll because it was produced by african americans.
Who was Elvis?
Elvis was one of the first white men to perform rock and roll.he never wrote his own songs he used the African Americans song and changed them a little bit.
What was the Social impact of rock and roll?
it made the generation in the 50's and 60's more racially tolerant.
What was the Fear of nuclear war?
in the 50's people grew up with fear of nuclear war.
Who were Beatniks?
people who questioned values, they were inspired by writers who were different than everybody else. They do the opposite that society did.
What was the Counter culture?
they did the opposite that the normal person would do/ have.eventually this became fashion
What happened with The election of 1960?
Kennedy, most important he inspires young people to become more active.
What was The new frontier?
Kennedy talked about leading the us to the future
What happened with The space program/NASA?
Kennedy pledged that the us would land on the moon. In 1969 Armstrong landed on the moon
When was Kennedy's assassination?
November 2nd 1963 he was killed in Dallas by Lee Harvey Oswald
What was Lyndon Johnson and the great society?
he created the relationship between the government and the American people that is still in use today. He said that the us is the great society.
What was Johnson's philosophy on Immigration?
Johnson changed immigration laws, which got rid of racist laws
What was the War on poverty?
Johnson declared war on poverty, government spends more money on education. Medicaid is for the poor and medicare is for the elderly.
Explain the youth movement Protesting war and the draft?
these aren't real hippies that believe the war is wrong and the draft isn't good.
How do they show Support for the civil rights movement?
most aren't hippies and they are young
Discuss Hippies and other freaks
counter culture movement, Rejection of capitalism- lived communally, Rejection of traditional values- like consumerism, they dressed weird, they didn't believe in marriage, Drugs- hippies said it was opening their minds, they start doing it more because it becomes more fun, Music- acid rock, music that you listen to while you're tripping on acid, Happenings- hippies went to these this is where hippie things would happen such as drugs and music.
What was Woodstock?
non hippie event that was considered hippie, free music and drugs
What was the Conservative backlash to the hippie movement?
there was an anti-hippie movement restore order
Who won The election of 1968?
Law and order?
they wanted Nixon to restore law and order
Abuse of power?
Nixon broke many laws to enforce laws.
What was Watergate?
Break in-democratic hotel located at the Watergate in Washington
Explain the Senate investigation?
congress has right to investigate the president. Obstruction of justice is where he commited a crime to cover up stuff
What were the Tapes?
tape recorded conversations in his oval office
What was the Supreme court ruling on Watergate?
they told him that Nixon needs to turn over the tapes Nixon resigns.
What is the History of relationship with israel and the US?
they divided palestine in half for Jewish. Israel became an independence. This first ones to notice was the US and we are very good allies. They were attacked by 6 nations even after they declared their independence, Palestine doesn't exist anymore.
What was the Yom kippur war?
between Israel and Egypt us backed Israel, Israel won and they claim land. Opec cut off oil supplies to the US because we supported Israel.
What is the PLO?
Palestine Liberation Organization, terrorist group.
What were the Camp David Accords?
- Carter hoped to gain peace in Middle East between Israel and Muslim nations
- Carter brought Egyptian leader Anwar el-Sadat and Israeli leader Menachem to US in 1977
Explain the US Israeli relations
What was Reagan's Political impact?
convincing a large group of democrats to become republican
What was Reagan's Economic impact?
government practices demand side policy, this says that when economic growth does down we spend money to help it grow. Works every single time. Conservatives believe the government is the problem, regan is the first to try supply side which is government should cut taxes for business and the wealthy and reduces regulations because this will increase investment which will create jobs and economic growth.
What was the Prosperity of the 80's?
this was a time where the economy was prospering, the rich were prospering
What was the Iran/ Iraq war?
a 7 year war which 7 million people died, we supported Iraq.
What was the Iran Contra Scandal?
Reagan agrees to negotiate with Iran, he started selling weapons, what made it illegal was that he was selling it without letting the government know and we were giving the money to the contraists.
Describe the Presidency of George H. W. Bush?
won 1988 election,his philosophy was don't screw it up.
What happened with Panama?
Noriega was our dictator in Ppanama, cocaine was being brought into the US so the US decided to invade Panama. Noriega was arrested
Describe The Gulf War?
invasion of Kuwait, we destroyed Husam military power
When was the Economic decline?
Bush was president
Who won the election of 1992?
Oklahoma City bombing, 1995
Attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995. It remained the most destructive act of terrorism committed in the United States until 9/11/01. Killed 168 people. Destroyed or damaged 324 buildings($652 million). The official investigation, known as "OKBOMB", was the largest criminal investigation case in American history. As a result of the bombing, the U.S. government passed the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996.
What happened in Bosnia?
a Clinton success, ethnically diverse, there was a civil war here, they served in something called ethnical cleansing. US intervened and the ended the civil war with a treaty
What happened in Rwanda?
Clinton's failure, small nation two ethnic groups Hutus and the Tutes, they killed each other. The US did nothing to stop this
What happened in Kosovo?
Clinton used military to stop the attacks on this place, he saved them this leads to the country Kosovo
What led to the Impeachment of Clinton?
Clinton is most known because he was , because he sexually harassed a women, he was guilty but the senate voted not to remove him.
Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon; led to a focus on eliminating terrorism.
War in Afghanistan
began on October 7, 2001, as the armed forces of the United States and the United Kingdom, and the Afghan United Front (Northern Alliance), launched Operation Enduring Freedom in response to the September 11 attacks on the United States, with the stated goal of dismantling the Al-Qaeda terrorist organization and ending its use of Afghanistan as a base.
war on terrorism led to this war, the us traced the Al Qaeda terrorist network to Afghanistan. When the government of Afghanistan refused to help us the us and our nato allies invaded the country overthrew the Taliban and attempted to destroy Al Qaeda. US soldiers are still there trying to establish a stable democracy
War in iraq
the us also invaded Iraq for 3 reason, 1) we believed Iraq was created weapons of mass destruction, this wasn't true 2) we believe Saddam Hussein was helping terrorist, this wasn't true 3) Saddam Hussein was a terrible dictator, this was true. After overthrowing Saddam we attempted to create a democracy
The Arab Spring
after establishing democracy in Iraq we hoped it would spread throughout the Middle East, some Middle Eastern nations overthrew their dictators but democracy did not spread
Growth of ISIS
President Obama withdrew the military from Iraq, this allowed isis a new terrorist nation to grow, forcing the United States to recommit its military fighting in Iraq and Syria
US helped the people overthrow their government but democracy isn't spread
the US attempted to assist the people in Syria of overthrowing their dictator but this attempt failed and created a humanitarian and refugee crisis.
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