A body of rules of action or conduct prescribed by controlling authority, and having binding legal force. It is that which regulates the conduct of individuals, businesses, and other organizations within society and intended to protect persons and their property against unwanted interference from other.
It is to shape moral conduct, maintain the status qua, facilitate planning, maximize individual freedom, keep the peace, promote justice, facilitate orderly change, provide a basis for compromise.
Is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city, or county. Typically, statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. The word is often used to distinguish law made by legislative bodies from case law, decided by courts, and regulations issued by government agencies. Are sometimes referred to as legislation or "black letter law". As a source of law, statutes are considered primary authority (as opposed to secondary authority). It is used in contradistinction to the common law. Statutes acquire their force from the time of their passage unless otherwise provided. Are of several kinds; namely, Public or private. Declaratory or remedial. Temporary or perpetual, also used to refer to an International treaty that establishes an institution, such as the Statute of the European Central Bank, a protocol to the international courts as well, such as the Statute of the International Court of Justice and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Protection from unreasonable search and seizure. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. (1.) The Congress shall have power To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the united states; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States.
(2.) To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States.
(3.) To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures.
(4.) To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States.
(5.) To establish post offices and post roads.
(6.) To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the. exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.
(7.) To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court.
(8.) To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations.
(9.) To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water.
(10) To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years.
(11.) To provide and maintain a navy.
(12) To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval Forces.
(13.) To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions.
(14.) To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by congress.
(15.) To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.
To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings. The external element or the objective element of a crime, is the Latin term for the "guilty act" which, when proved beyond a reasonable doubt in combination with the mens rea, "guilty mind", produces criminal liability in the common law-based criminal law jurisdictions of Canada, Australia, India, Pakistan, South Africa, New Zealand, England, Ireland and the United States. In the United States, some crimes also require proof of an attendant circumstance. Viewed as one of the necessary elements of a crime. The standard common law test of criminal liability is usually expressed in the Latin phrase, actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea, which means "the act does not make a person guilty unless the mind is also guilty". Thus, in jurisdictions with due process, there must be an actus reus accompanied by some level of mens rea to constitute the crime with which the defendant is charged (see the technical requirement of concurrence). As a general rule, criminal liability does not attach to a person who acted with the absence of mental fault. The exception is strict liability crimes.
In civil law, it is usually not necessary to prove a subjective mental element to establish liability for breach of contract or tort, for example. However, if a tort is intentionally committed or a contract is intentionally breached, such intent may increase the scope of liability as well as the measure of damages payable to the plaintiff.
Therefore, mens rea refers to the mental element of the offence that accompanies the actus reus.
s a civil action brought in a court of law in which a plaintiff, a party who claims to have incurred loss as a result of a defendant's actions, demands a legal or equitable remedy. The defendant is required to respond to the plaintiff's complaint. If the plaintiff is successful, judgment will be given in the plaintiff's favor, and a variety of court orders may be issued to enforce a right, award damages, or impose a temporary or permanent injunction to prevent an act or compel an act. A declaratory judgment may be issued to prevent future legal disputes. Although not as common, lawsuit may also refer to a criminal action, criminal proceeding, or criminal claim.
A lawsuit may involve dispute resolution of private law issues between individuals, business entities or non-profit organizations. A lawsuit may also enable the state to be treated as if it were a private party in a civil case, as plaintiff or defendant regarding an injury, or may provide the state with a civil cause of action to enforce certain laws.
The conduct of a lawsuit is called litigation. The plaintiffs and defendants are called litigants and the attorneys representing them are called litigators.