25 terms

History Chapter 21

Prentice Hall World History Vocabulary Chapter 21
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Henry Bessemer
a British engineer who developed a new process for making steel from iron in 1856
Alfred Nobel
a Swedish chemist who invented dynamite in 1866
Michael Faraday
an English chemist who created the first electric motor in the 1800s
dynamo
a machine that is used to generate electricity
Thomas Edison
the American inventor who made the first electric light bulb in the 1870s
interchangeable parts
identical components that could be used in place of one another in manufacturing
assembly line
production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks
Orville and Wilbur Wright
American bicycle makers who designed and flew an airplane in 1903, ushering in the air age
germ theory
the idea that certain microbes cause specific infectious diseases
Louis Pasteur
a French chemist who showed the link between microbes and disease and developed vaccines against rabies and anthrax
Robert Koch
a German doctor who identified the bacterium that caused tuberculosis
Florence Nightingale
an army nurse in the Crimean War who worked to introduce sanitary measures in British hospitals and founded the world's first school of nursing
Joseph Lister
the English surgeon who discovered how antiseptics prevent infection
urban renewal
the process of fixing up the poor areas of a city
mutual-aid society
a self-help group formed to aid sick or injured workers
standard of living
a measure of the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society
romanticism
19th-century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
William Wordsworth
a poet; part of the romantic movement
William Blake
a poet and writer who contributed to the romantic movement
Lord Byron
a British poet who wrote about moody, isolated, and romantic heroes
Victor Hugo
a French novelist who recreated his country's past in novels such as The Hunchback of Notre Dame
Ludwig van Beethoven
a romantic German composer whose music combined classical forms with a stirring range of sound
realism
an attempt to represent the world as it was, without the sentiment associated with romanticism
Charles Dickens
an English novelist who portrayed the lives of slum dwellers and factory workers in his books
Gustave Courbet
a French realist painter who depicted what he saw in his works