hist 202 key terms
Terms in this set (50)
A war between Spain and the United States, fought in 1898. The war began as an intervention by the United States on behalf of Cuba. ... The United States acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines in the war and gained temporary control over Cuba.
industrial revolution in england
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudalism. Believed in a classless society.
was the French political alliance that allied the Communists, the Socialists, and the Radicals together.
Scottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations a precursor to modern Capitalism
(1748-1832) British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.
Revolutions of 1848
Democratic and nationalistic revolutions, most of them unsuccessful, that swept through Europe
A five point policy issued by Japan's Meiji emperor, which described Japan's plan for modernization calling for democracy, equality of class, rejection of outdated customs, and acceptance of foreign knowledge.
Reign of Terror
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens
1894 Falsely charged for supplying French secrets to the Germans. Coincidentally a jew. Found guilty and sent to Devil's Island. After 10 years there he was given a full pardon by President Loubet
Set forth the principle all citizens were equal, the emperor had autocratic power, but still a Diet or one elected house and one house appointed by the emperor; voting rights were limited; ended distinction between classes, set up schools, literacy increased, womens position went up
Rise of Terrorism
This tactic has occurred in many parts of the world including the U.S., however most Americans believed that this tactic was a problem that mainly plagued other nations.
Consequences of the Industrial Revolution
Traditional family structure changed
Less working together on the farm, more working individually in the factory
The schedule of daily life changed
Pace dictated by machines
No breaks or sick days
Poor working conditions
Infrastructure can't keep up
European Expansion in 19th Century
By 1900 a significant part of Africa had been colonized by mainly seven European powers—Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Italy. After the conquest of African decentralized and centralized states, the European powers set about establishing colonial state systems.
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Causes of the Great Depression
stock markets crashed, unemployment rising, the dustbowl, overproduction of everything, layoffs, buying on credit
Congress of Vienna
(1814-1815 CE) Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon.
Unification of Italy
1860, ally of Mazzini, recruited volunteers and won control of Sicily. Next, Garibaldi turned Naples and Sicily over to Victor Emmanuel. Last, Italy becomes a united nation, which it hadn't been since the fall of the Roman Empire.
End of the Cold War
Marked by the fall of the Soviet Union which was the result of Eastern European countries gaining independence, Gorbachev's reform policies, and a series of nuclear limitation treaties.
A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes.
First Sino-Japanese War
During this war, Japan took Korea, which was a protectorate of China, and then invaded China itself. After invading Manchuria and destroying the Chinese navy, the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed, giving Japan its first two colonies: Taiwan and the Pescadores Island.
(1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed
(1864-1936) English writer and poet; defined the "white man's burden" as the duty of European and Euro-American peoples to bring order and enlightenment to distant lands
Decolonization After WW2
(1729-1797) Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), which criticized the underlying principles of the French Revolution and argued conservative thought.
Radical economist who delivered a forceful attack in his Imperialism. He contended that the rush to acquire colonies was due to the economic needs of unregulated capitalism, particularly the need of the rich to find an outlet for their surplus capital. He also argued that the quest for empire diverted attention away from domestic reform and the need to reduce the great gap between the rich and the poor.
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
In the 19th-century, various independent German-speaking states, led by the chancellor of Prussia Otto von Bismarck, unified to create a Germanic state. The state expanded with von Bismarck's military exploits against Austria, France and Denmark. Unification was complete by 1871 with the Prussian king, Wilhelm, named the first leader of Germany.
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
After the February Revolution in Paris in 1848, Louis Napoleon was elected President in France simply on the basis of name recognition among the newly enfranchised voters. He soon declared himself Emperor Napoleon III. France prospered under him for two decades.
Slavery in the US
-The Dutch brough the first African slaves to Virginia in 1619 to work on plantations.
-From 1640 to 1680, large numbers of slaves where brought to the Americas.
-with the invention of eli whitney;s cotton gin, cotton became the economic mainstay of the South, and the demand for labor increased the slave trade.
-From 1798 to 1808, more than 200,000 African slaves were brought to America, mostly in the south
Colonial Latin America
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Imperialism in Africa
European powers wanted to explore more than just the coast of Africa; sent missionaries and explorers to the interior.
-Missionaries were sincere in helping them (built schools, hospitals) but treated Africans like children needing guidance
All Quiet on the Western Front
(1929) a novel written by Erich Maria Remarque illustrating the horrors of World War I and the experiences of veterans and soldiers. It was extremely popular, but also caused a lot of political controversy when it was first published, and was banned in Germany in the 1930's.
Causes of Revolution in Latin America
Policy introduced by Harry S. Truman after WWII that said the duty of the U.S. was to stop the spread of Totalitarianism (implying Communism); Defined the foreign policy for the period after WWII until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
a military dictator of a Latin American country
The belief that only the fittest survive in human political and economic struggle.
Open Door Policy
Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
Yom Kippur War
(RN), , This was a war fought by Israel and neighboring Arab nations where the Arabs launched a surprise attack during Yom Kippur. U.S. support for Israel during the war led to OPEC boycotting the U.S., creating an energy crisis.
a state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfare, in particular.
Historians' term for the late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century wave of conquests by European powers, the United States, and Japan, which were followed by the development and exploitation of the newly conquered territories.
visited wast and invited engineers over to develop weapons, ports, transportaion/raised money for it to happen by taxing peasants and borrowing form merchants
Indian Congress Party
Nationalist group in India that called for independence from Britain; led by Western-educated Indian elites; led India in the early postcolonial era.
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism. $13 million given.