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AP Art History 250 Notecards

Terms in this set (250)

Tlatilco female figurine
Central Mexico, site of Tlatico. 1200-900 B.C.E. Ceramic

1. These objects have two faces with a narrow waist and broad hips. There is a great variety and were often buried with people.
2. The use of two face design features two faces that are sometimes combined and sometimes distinct. This is thought to relate to duality but the lack of a written record means that the reflection of birth, life, and death cannot be confirmed.
3. They often show scene of daily life that are not typically depicted in later art due to the intimacy of the activities.
4. Despite the fact that the clay figures are from the Valley of Mexico around 3,000 years ago, they are not influenced by the Olmec civilization.
5.The figures are mostly of women with few details on the hands of feet. The figures with the two heads or male figures are less common and the male figures are often in the nude.

1. The Tlatilco Female Figurine was a female ceramic figure. Ceramics were widespread for only a few centuries before the Tlatilco figurines. (1.1B,1.2C)
2. Motifs of maize, ducks, and fish are found on the ceramics. The makers of these figurines lived in farming villages. The inhabitants of Tlatilco grew maize and hunted in the lake to sustain themselves. (1.1B, 1.2B)
3. The figurine emphasizes wide hips, spherical upper thighs, intricate hair, and a pinched waist. The majority of these figurines were female, but when men were depicted as men who wore costumes and masks. The two connected heads of the female express an idea of duality. (1.2E)
4. These figurines were found while excavating graves. Inside the graves, the Tlatilco figurines were found in large quantities, suggesting a religious significance to them. (1.2B)
5. The Tlatilco Female Figurine and others like it were made exclusively by hand, without the use of molds. They were made by pinching clay and shaping it by hand. The details were created by a sharp instrument that cut linear markings into the wet clay. (1.2D)
Palette of King Narmer
Pre-dynastic Egypt. c. 3000-2920 B.C.E Greywacke
1. The palette depicts King Narmer as he is uniting Upper and Lower Egypt. His name appears on both sides of the palette and is so valuable that it has never been permitted to leave the country (2-3)

2. On the front of the palette, Narmer is shown wearing the crown of Lower Egypt (red crown) and looking at the dead bodies of his enemies. In the center there are lions with elongated necks which symbolize unification (would have held the makeup). At the bottom of the front side there is a bull knocking down a fortress. This symbolizes Narmer killing his enemies. (2-3B)

3. On the back of the palette is Narmer wearing bowling-pin shaped crown of Upper Egypt (white crown). The king's protector, Horus, is also pictured holding a rope and a papyrus plant around a man's head. These are symbols of Lower Egypt. (2-2A)

4. The palette was used to prepare eye makeup which was used to protects their eyes from the sun. It was probably commemorative or ceremonial. (2-2)

1. This palette is divided into registers, to divide the subject into different scenes and show the importance of certain components of the scene. The pharaoh is shown much larger than all other figures, and represented in composite view. This method of portraying bodies was meant to give the viewer the most information possible about the subject, and was also based in the idea that you had to represent all parts of a figure for the person to be complete in the next world. (2-2.a, 2-3)
2. The pharaoh is much larger than all other figures and is also shown in an idealized form with broad shoulders, small hips and waist, and a muscular form. His enemies are shown trampled under his feet or beheaded. On the top of this piece there is a cartouche, or a place to put the pharaoh's god name after his death. (2-3.b)
3. This piece was made to celebrate the success of the pharaoh in uniting upper and lower Egypt into one kingdom. Cats with long necks that bend like serpents represent the union of Egypt as one of the animals wears the crown of upper Egypt and the other one of lower Egypt. The pharaoh wears a crown combining the two styles. (2-1)
4. The goddess mother of the pharaohs is present to show the divinity of the pharaoh. The god Horus- ruler of the earth, is also present to demonstrate that order on earth, or ma'at, is brought by the pharaoh's divinity and his connection to Horus. (2-2)
Audience Hall of Darius and Xerxes
Persepolis, Iran. Persian. c. 520-465 B.C.E. Limestone

1.Persia was the largest empire the world had seen up to this time. As the first great empire it need an appropriate capital as a grand stage to impress people at home and dignitaries abroad. Persepolis included a massive columned hall used for receptions by the Kings called the Apadana. The audience hall itself is hypostyle in its plan. The audience hall called the Apadana had 36 columns covered by a wooden roof. The audience hall held thousands of people and was used by the kings receptions. Two monumental stairways were adorned with reliefs of the New Year's festival and a procession of representatives of 23 subject nations.

2. The column capitals assumed the form of either twin-headed bulls, eagles or lions, all animals represented royal authority and kingship. The columns had a bell shaped base that is an introverted lotus blossom. Many cultures (i.e, Greeks, Egyptians, Babylonians) are seen to have contributed to the building

3. The monumental stairways that approach the Apadana were adorned with registers of relief sculptures. The north and east stairways are decorated. The theme of that program us one that pays tribute to the Persian king himself as it depicts representatives of 23 subject
nations bearing gifts to the king.

4. The walls of the spaces and stairs leading up to the reception hall were carved with hundreds of figures. The registers of relief sculpture depicted representatives of the 23 subject nations of the Perisan empire bringing valuable gifts as tribute to the king. The sculptures form a processional scene, leading scholars to conclude that the reliefs sculpture capture the scene of actual, annual tribute processions perhaps on the Persian New Year that took place at Persepolis. The two sets of stairway reliefs mirror and complement each other. Each program has a central scene of the enthroned king flanked by his attendants and guards. In the reliefs noblemen wearing elite outfits and military appeal are present. The relief program of the Apadana serve to reinforce and underscore the power of the Persian king and the breadth of his dominion.
Temple of Minerva and sculpture of Apollo
Master sculptor Vulca. c. 510-500 B.C.E. Original temple of wood, mud brick, or tufa; terra cotta sculpture

1. This Etruscan temple was made out of mud brick with a stone foundation, and the modified doric columns were made out of wood. These materials were less permanent than the materials used by Greek and Roman societies and therefore this structure is no longer in existence. (2-5)
2. Clay statues were displayed on the roof of the temple, portraying a scene of the god Apollo struggling with Heracles for a tripod. These figures are meant to be representative of ideal humans, and are designed to be viewed from a distance. The figures have archaic smiles, and use drapery in contrast to Greek figures which were often nude. (2-4.c)
3. Figures on the roof of the temple are comparable to Greek kouros statues in some ways but show distinct aspects of Etruscan art. None of the figures are nude on the Etruscan temple, but some scholars believe Kouros statues were meant to be depictions of the god Apollo, and the Etruscan art on the roof of this temple depicts Apollo. The Etruscan statues are less realistic due to their placement on a temple roof, and are relatively flat because they were generally only viewed from a frontal perspective. (2-4)
4. This temple differs from Greek temple composition in several ways, including the fact that it has a colonnade only on the front, has exposed beams, and has a much smaller staircase which is also only in the front of the temple. Overall the structure is not as impressive or imposing as Greek or Roman temples. There is a front porch on the temple, and the interior sanctuaries are dedicated to Zeus, Athena, and Hera. (2-4)
Doryphoros
Polykleitos. Original 450-440 B.C.E. Roman copy (marble) of Greek original (bronze)
1. 1. This statue is called "Spear Bearer" (Greek: Doryphoros) because of the empty hand which in Greek times was carrying a spear. He has a closed stance and contrapposto. His left arm and right leg are relaxed and his right arm and left leg are tense. The style of Contrapposto is defined in this piece, because of its ultimate proportions of the human figure.
2. After the Peloponnesian War, sculpters started to turn away from idealistic figures and more to humanized statues. Gods were portrayed extremely detailed and like humans. The fourth century opened up the expressions of emotions through sensuous and languorous statues as well as heads that are as small as 1/8th of the body.
3. Specific to Doryphoros, he has a blocklike solidity, broad shoulders, thick torso, and a muscular body. He was thought to have been placed in a gym in sparta for soldiers as the ultimate human form. It portrays one who is both a warrior and an athlete. He is so great that he turns his eyes away from you, although you admire him. He does not recognize the admiration.
4. Part of the reason that this one statue is so popular and celebrated, is because a majority of the sculptures from the fourth century were made of bronze. During war, bronze was the main metal used for weapons, so the Greeks would melt down their statues to use for weapons. This is the reason that this statue like most others, is in a marble copy. So that we can still observe the beauty of Greek art.
1. There was an older temple to Athena in that same area that was destroyed when the Persians invaded. The Persians destroyed and burned down the temple and the Athenians took a vow to never rebuild it but a generation later they decided to rebuild the Athenian temple. The Delian League, a tax money fund, may have been what paid for it. It was a sacred area that was dedicated to Athena. Eventually housed the city-state tax money, storehouse, and treasury, full of valuable things and functioned as a symbol of the city's wealth and power and point of awe.

2. Mathematics and building skills and search for perfect harmony and balance were all important to the Greeks so the Parthenon demonstrates all these things. Its architectural perfection is an illusion based on subtle distortions that correct the imperfections of human sight. For example, the columns bulge out fractions of an inch towards the center in order to create the illusion of a perfectly straight column. The Parthenon is a doric temple with ionic elements. There are massive column outside with shallow, broad flutes going directly down and a simple little flair at the top and four ionic columns in the west end of the temple. The triglyphs and metopes were covered in sculptures depicting stories or Greeks battling against enemies. There was a frieze inside the porch depicting a procession of the people of Athens towards the Parthenon (a historical representation rather than mythological or religious) that ran along the outside of the Temple which was an ionic feature. (2-4c, 2-5b)

3. There are a series of Nikes in the Temple of Athena Nike, the most famous sculpture is Nike Adjusting her Sandal. The sculpture shows her possibly taking her sandal off as she is in a sacred space and she is depicted with eroticism through her clothes and the way that they drape her body which was a big deal. The emphasis on drapery was a stylistically very much a part of the Classical period. There was also an emphasis on her body and form seeming natural, relaxed, and imbalanced. (2-4b, 2-5b)

4. The Acropolis represents the birth of democracy as there was a shift in government in the 5th century that made it easier for the Greek people to participate in their government. Many more governmental buildings are based upon the outward architecture of the Parthenon to embody that same sense of democracy and its roots. (2-4d)
Rebecca and Eliezer at the Well and Jacob Wrestling the Angel, from the Vienna Genesis
Early Byzantine Europe. Early sixth century C.E. Illuminated manuscript
1) The creation of religious manuscripts such as this one was a very time consuming process. The pages are purple vellum which is treated animal skin, suggesting a royal institution, and all the writing and illustrations were done by hand using silver script. The care and detail taken with such manuscripts makes them very important and accessible by only the very wealthy. (3-2)

2) The style of the illustration is very classical and shows the training of the artist in Greek and roman tradition. Foreshortening, shadowing to show depth, contrapposto and the roman style of columns and arches on bridge are all examples of classical elements in this piece. (3-1C)

3) The perspective used in this illustration is typical of the Byzantine period but different from the classical linear perspective of the previous period. Here all the figures are the same size regardless of which section of the narrative they are from. Also the perspective on the bridge is unique, the columns that would appear closest to the viewer are smaller than the columns from earlier in the narrative, opposite how they would appear using linear perspective. (3-1B)

4) The illustrations on both of these pages were done to aid the reader in contemplation over the religious stories. One page shows Jacob leading his family and wives and then wrestling with the angel who then blesses him, using a bridge to wrap the scene around in two levels. The other page is also a narrative that has multiple scenes, showing Rebecca assisting Isaac with his camels at the well. (3-2C)

5) The image of Rebecca and Eliezer at the well also demonstrates the shift in art style between the classical period and early medieval art. The nude next to the river is a very classical element, which contrasts with Rebecca's outfit of heavy drapery and simplified clothing, typical of early Christian art. The presence of the walled city, which is a symbolic element is not shown in a spatially accurate way, which is typical of medieval art. (3-1C)
The Palace of Versailles
Versailles, France. Loius Le Vau and Jules Hardouin-Mansart (architects). Begun 1669 C.E. Masonry, stone, wood, iron, and gold leaf (architecture); marble and bronze (sculpture); gardens

1. The work was designed for Louis XIV at Versailles as a way to consolidate his power by forcing the French nobility off their estates to live there at least half the year. The lavish lifestyle the king lived there was meant to bankrupt the nobility who tried to emulate it in order to maintain their status, putting them at the mercy of the king's patronage. (3-5C)

2. The palace itself was designed in a grand classical style, with Doric entablatures and columns and severe symmetry, to emphasize the rationality, order and imperial power that Louis brought to France, rivaling that of Roman emperors. Art in the palace followed the model of Le Brun in emphasizing classical yet dramatic and allegorical works that forced the viewer to encounter the power and glory of Louis as a demi-god-like Sun King. Le Brun also founded the French Academy of Arts under Louis to centralize artistic production and promote the king's classical aesthetic; it became the dominant art academy of Europe. (3-4; 3-4B)

3. The main space in the palace was the Hall of Mirrors, with the Salon of Peace for domestic affairs and the Salon of War for foreign policy at each end. Besides being heavily gilded, the decoration features ceiling paintings by Le Brun allegorically celebrating Louis' achievements and large windows facing the garden with large mirrors on the opposite wall. The mirrors reflected light off all the other surfaces, emphasizing the radiance of Louis' reign as the Sun King, the king around whom all other beings and bodies orbited. (3-4, 3-4C)

4. The gardens nearby the palace were designed in elaborate patterns of geometric symmetry by Le Notre to emphasize Louis's control even over the elements of nature. Orange trees and other plantings from distant lands spoke to the king's control of a vast colonial empire in N. America and elsewhere, which helped finance the creation of the complex. (3-4C, 3-3B)

5. While the landscape relaxed into a more picturesque and irregular pattern further from the palace (and the water features there were only turned on when the king processed through), artificial grottoes depicting Louis as Apollo the classical sun god confronted inhabitants who wandered the grounds, and all avenues eventually converged back in the palace on Louis bedroom, where each day the public ceremonies of his ritually rising and going to sleep attested to his central importance. (3-4, 3-4B)
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