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41 terms

Bio wB - Chapter 9

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Aerobic
Describes a process that requires oxygen.
Anaerobic
Describes a process that does not require oxygen.
ATP
Adenosine tri-phosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups.
Chemical Bonds
The location where organisms store energy.
Photosynthesis
The process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen.
Autotrophs
Organisms that are able to perform photosynthesis and make organic compounds.
Metabolism
Using energy to build organic molecules or breaking down organic molecules in which energy is stored.
Cellular Respiration
The process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates.
Catalyst
Enzymes that assist in chemical reactions without being used up.
Decomposing ATP
ATP --> ADP + P + energy
ATP Synthase
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP by adding a phosphate group to ADP.
Electron Transport Chain
A series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane.
Chloroplasts
An organelle that converts light energy into chemical energy.
Stroma
The space inside the inner membrane of a chloroplast.
Thylakoids
A membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis.
First stage of photosynthesis
Light waves hit stacks of thylakoids and the light energy is used to make ATP and NADPH.
Pigment
A substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color by absorbing different wavelengths of lights.
Chlorophyll
A green pigment that is present in most plant and algae cells and some bacteria, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis.
Carotenoids
A plant pigment that absorbs blue and green light and reflects yellow, orange, and red light.
Reaction Center
A region in a chlorophyll molecule where light energy causes the electrons to become "excited" and to move to a higher energy level.
Water Splitting
During the electron transport chain of photosynthesis an enzyme splits water and the electrons from they hydrogen atoms are used to pump H⁺ ions into the thylakoid. The remaining oxygen atoms combine to form O₂ gas and are released.
Hydrogen Ion Pump
A protein acts as a membrane pump and allows H⁺ ions into the thylakoid with the help of energy from electrons.
Making NADPH
Excited electrons combine with H⁺ ions and NADP⁺ to form NADPH in the electron transport chain.
Calvin Cycle
A biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP an NADPH.
Final Stage of Photosynthesis
ATP and NADPH are used to produce energy-storing sugar molecules from the carbon in carbon dioxide.
Carbon Fixation
The use of carbon dioxide to make organic compounds.
Dark Reactions
The reactions that fix carbon dioxide in photosynthesis.
Factors that affect photosynthesis
Light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration, and temperature.
Products of photosynthesis
Glucose and oxygen.
Glycolysis
The anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the forms of ATP.
First stage of cellular respiration
Glucose is broken down to 2 pyruvate molecules in the cytoplasm by glycolysis.
Second stage of cellular respiration
Aerobic Respiration, which consists of the Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.
Krebs Cycle
A series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvate into carbon dioxide, water, and electron carriers.
Products of the Krebs Cycle
The total yield of energy-storing products is one ATP, three NADH, and one FADH₂.
Electron Transport Chain
The second stage of aerobic respiration that occurs in the inner membranes of the mitochondria. Electrons pass through a series of molecules.
Products of the Electron Transport Chain
Up to 34 ATP and water molecules.
Fermentation
The breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen. Allows glycolysis to continue supplying a cell with ATP in anaerobic conditions.
Lactic Acid Fermentation
Pyruvate is converted to lactic acid.
Alcoholic Fermentation
Pyruvate is converted to a 2-carbon compound and then ethanol.
Anaerobic Processes
Fermentation and glycolysis.
Aerobic Processes
Aerobic respiration, including the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain.