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93 terms

Infancy: Social and Personality Development

STUDY
PLAY
healthy people 2020
what is a set of health objectives to improve health in the US over 10 years and
healthy people 2020
the goal of what is to increase the quality and number of years of healthy life and to eliminate health disparities
increased
has the amount of people that breast feed increased or decreased from 1998-2010
breast feeding
what are the following advantages for an infant related to:
-immunity from mom-Ab
-bonding
-immediately available-warm
-less likely to be overweight bc stop when full
-less likely to be a picky eater
-rarely causes constipation/diarrhea (smells better)
-has factor that promotes infant growth
-high IQ
breast feeding
what are the following advantages for a mother related to:
-free
-readily available
-encourages eating right
-weight loss (need 500 calories extra per day)
-no sterilization needed
-no contamination
-no menstruation for a long time
bottle feeding
what are the following advantages for an infant related to:
-allergies/metabolic disorder
-incase mothers is contaminated
bottle feeding
what are the following advantages for a mother related to:
-other parent can be involved
-gives more free time
-does not tie mom to baby
-easier to go back to work
-more socially acceptable
-doesn't interfere w couple's sex life
-doesn't dictate moms diet/eating style
-don't have to feel squeamish
at least a year
according to the AMA how long should a woman breast feed (but something is better than nothing)
black (least) and asian (highest followed by latino then white)
what ethnic group is least likely to breast feed and which is most likely
louisiana (least) and washington (most)
what state is least likely to have ever breast fed and which is most likely (NJ is in the middle)
breast feeding in the AA population
what is promoted through the following current research:
-Katherine Barber-African American Breastfeeding Alliance
-Shanda Lear-Lactation Institute and Breastfeeding Clinic
breastfeeding in the AA community
what are the following barriers to:
-no the norm in the community
-not a lot of factual/current data
-lack of spouse/peer support
-belief that it isnt possible to work when doing this
-only for white women
-no images of this in media
-overload of coupons/samples for formula
2-5 months
when do babies begin cooing (vowel sounds)
5-7 months
when do babies begin babbling, stringing sounds together
6 months
when do babies begin producing sounds only in languages they hear and deafness is found
6-12 months
when do babies begin expressive jargon-resembles intonation and sounds of adult speech, yet is meaningless in content. social interaction with parents
12 months
when do babie begin saying their first words
15-18 months
when do babies begin using words to express needs
18 months
when do babies begin using 2 word combinations
2 years
when do babies begin using phrases
baby talk
what is adult speech directed at infants that includes raising and lowering the pitch of one's voice
motherese
what is gramatically simple baby talk that adults use when talking to infant. use more commands and questions, less pronouns and verbs
that babies developed along the same guidelines
what was determined by studying new language in different cultures in american mothers that talk a lot to their babies versus Japanese and Somoan mothers that rarely talked to their babies
hearing loss
what is a common cause for speech delay where if at 2 they do not say more than 5 words
expressive
what is a common cause for speech delay and is characterized by examining motor, genetics, and idiopathic (just because)
receptive
what is a common cause for speech delay and is defined by children that can say word but can't identify a picture, (language doesn't match cognition)
associated cognitive delays
what is a common cause for speech delay and is seen by not understanding things
bad speech habits
what is a common cause for speech delay and is caused by parents that do not have good speech
good speech develoment
what are the following tips for:
-be a good listener
-talk naturally to the child
-model proper speech
-be specific of needs
first child speaks for the second
why do second children tend to speak later than first children
first three weeks
with children's social development when is there not much going on
fourth weeks
with children's social development when do they have direct actions toward adults and emotions start to show
2 month
with children's social development when is there lots of smiling, vocalization and animation towards mom
3 months
with children's social development when is there a need for social interactions firmly established
reciprocal interactions
what is the view of behavioral development that says that the parents and the child actively influence each other
attachment
what is the affectionate emotional bond between parent (or caregiver) and child, not just a need for survival
birth to 36 months
when is the most important time for attachment in a child's life
preattachment
what phase of infant attachment occurs at 0-3 months and is characterized by being interested in everyone, eventually distinguishes the caregiver from others
attachment in the making
what phase of infant attachment occurs at 3-6 months and is characterized by increase in smiling and vocalization to caregiver; clearly disseminates the mother from others
clear-cut attachment
what phase of infant attachment occurs at 6-12 months and is characterized by displaying separation distress and stranger anxiety; is clearly attached to the caregiver
goal-corrected partnership
what phase of infant attachment occurs at 12-24 months and is characterized by attempts to manipulate caregiver's behavior ; displays more complex interplay of social and emotional behaviors
attachment constant
what phase of infant attachment occurs at 2-3 years and is characterized by noticing impending departure, indicating a better understanding of the surrounding world
growing confidence
what phase of infant attachment occurs at 3-4 years and is characterized by beginning to accept mother's temporary abscence, plays with other children
less intense attach
what phase of infant attachment occurs at 4-10 years and is characterized by will still hold hand and still turns to parents in times of trouble
weakened attach
what phase of infant attachment occurs at adolescence years and is characterized by becoming attached to peers
attach bond still necessary
what phase of infant attachment occurs as an adult and is characterized by still turning to friends or loved ones in times of trouble
secure
what pattern of attachment occurs in 65-70% of children and is characterized by:
-stays close to parent
-uses parents as base to explore
-slightly distressed by the separation but receptive upon reunion
-prefers parent to strangers
avoidant
what pattern of attachment occurs in 20% of children and is characterized by:
-parent not a base of support
-NOT distressed by separation and avoids contact on reunion
-does not distinguish btwn strangers and parents for contact
-the mothers of these babies seemed to dislike or were indifferent to physical contact
ambivalent
what pattern of attachment occurs in 10% of children and is characterized by:
-distressed with parent
-intensely upset when separated but were ambivalent about reunion
-angered with caregiver and not comforted by strangers
-sought contact with mothers but simultaneously seemed to resist it
insecure-disorganized-disoriented
what pattern of attachment occurs in <5% of children and is characterized by:
-greatest degree of insecurity
-"afraid, dazed, confused"
-inconsistent behavior after reunion with parent
-seeks contact with them and then avoids the parent
-show very little emotion
9-12 months
when does separation, distress, and stranger anxiety peak around
yes
is the type of attachment influenced by child-rearing patterns predominant in a culture?
secure
by age 4 in a school setting what type of attachment is this:
-seek attention in positive ways.
-if they need teacher, they ask
avoidant
by age 4 in a school setting what type of attachment is this:
-wait passively to be noticed
ambivalent
by age 4 in a school setting what type of attachment is this:
-chronic whining and complaining
-seeks help more but is less happy with out come
avoidant
by high school what type of attachment is this:
-less supportive friends and more likely to be sexually active earlier
things get worse because the role of husband and wife becomes more tradiational, less free time and sex, decreased marital satisfaction, greater conflict
what changes occur in the relationship between the parents when the child is first born
daddy being involved with the new baby
what is the most important factor in maintaining marital satisfaction for both the man and woman when there is a new baby
mother
in the vast majority of families who is the primary caregiver
mother
infants during the first year tend to prefer who to anyone else
depressed
what type of moms showed more anger, irritation, and sadness towards infants and in turn these infants were fussier and cried more
caregiver, disciplinarian, playmate-teacher, disengaged
what are the 4 types of fathers
caregivers and playmates
what type of father is more educated and had more prestigious occupations, were better adjusted emotionally, and experienced fewer daily hassles than the disciplinarian and disengaged fathers
dads
there is an imbalance of the law in relationship to psychiatric research
non resident
40% of what type of dads have highly open, healthy, supportive relationships with the kids
american coalition for fathers and children
what organization is to help dads take action
mom is more verbal and wants to play educational games and dad is more undpredictable and likes to roughhouse
what is different about the way men and women play with young children?
dad starts to act more like mom
what happens in the way dad plays with young children when he is the primary caregiver
temperament
what is the person's inborn, characteristic way of responding to stimuli. style of behaving
easy
what type of temperament is this:
-typically in a good mood
-regular pattern of eating and sleeping
-adapts readily to new environment and new people
difficult
what type of temperament is this:
-often irritable
-irregular eating and sleeping habits
-withdraws from new people and adapts slowly to changes
slow to warm
what type of temperament is this:
-similar to difficult but not as extreme
-low activity level
-withdraws from unfamiliar situations
-reacts with a low level of intensity
easy (followed by no category, slow to warm, difficult)
what category do most babies fall into with temperament
no
does the category of temperament that a child falls into when they are a newborn correlate with what their future personality will be like?
yes
does the category of temperament that a child falls into when they are 1 year old correlate with what their future personality will be like?
goodness of fit
what is parent's demands and expectations are compatible with their children's temperament, abilities, and other characteristics (the more parents can adjust their style/expectations the better the relationship will be)
work with it
the most important point for parents to do is to do what with their child's inborn temperament instead of trying to change it
anger
according to goldman what emotion is this:
-fury
-resentment
-animosity
sadness
according to goldman what emotion is this:
-grief
-sorrow
-gloom
-melancholy
fear
according to goldman what emotion is this:
-nervousness
-apprehension
-dread
enjoyment
according to goldman what emotion is this:
-happiness
-joy
-bliss
-delight
love
according to goldman what emotion is this:
-acceptance
-trust
-devotion
-adoration
surprise
according to goldman what emotion is this:
-shock
-astonishment
-amazement
-wonder
shame
according to goldman what emotion is this:
-guilt
-embarrassment
-mortification
-humiliation
birth-3 months
when do children express the following emotions:
-distress
-pleasure
-disgust
3-6 months
when do children express the following emotions:
-delight
-wariness
-anger
6-9 months
when do children express the following emotions:
-fear
-anxiety
-shyness
9-12 months
when do children express the following emotions:
-stranger anxiety
-separation anxiety
12-18 months
when do children express the following emotions:
-elation
-security
18-24 months
when do children express the following emotions:
-shame
-defiance
smiling gets more attention and chronically angry gets avoided
how does an infant's emotional state affect the response she gets from others?
development of self
what is recognition of one's separatness from others as well as conceptual image of one's characteristic behaviors
around 18 months
when does a child begin to develop a sense of self