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Cinema Studies Final Test
Terms in this set (76)
What are the three elements of a film soundtrack?
Music, dialog, sound effects
the process of combining the three elements into one soundtrack. This is added to the image in post production
variations aurally communicate of distance between the camera and characters, objects, or events
The degree to which a sound seems to correspond with its source in a film
the range of highness and lowness between sounds onscreen. it allows the differentiation amongst sounds and voices
Interacts with the image track to create rhythmic relationships, establish connections between sound and onscreen sources, and smooth or mark transitions
- when a sound carries over a visual transition in a film.
- For example, music or dialog that carries over between scenes & contributes to the transition
Sound that exists within and helps to establish the world of the movie
Onscreen Diegetic Sound
A sound that is audible to the characters and the audience and has an immediately visible diegetic source
Offscreen Diegetic Sound
A sound that is audible to the characters and the audience, but whose diegetic source is not immediately visible
Sound that is external to the world of the story, outside the film's diegesis, and is audible to the audience but not to the characters onscreen
sound heard only within the mind of one character
Film music can be used to
- Establish Historical Context
- Defining Character ("leitmotif"-Vadar's Theme)
- Shaping Emotional Tenor
- Distancing the Audience (ironic)
Leitmotif ("leading motif")
A musical phrase used as a recurrent theme associated with a character or idea
Empathetic Film Music
Music used to directly express and participate in the feelings of the scene
Music that expresses "conspicuous indifference" to the situation portrayed onscreen.Can distance the viewer or create a sense of unease or irony
commonly explore the material specificity of the film medium itself and the conditions in which it is experienced by audiences--including such basic elements as film stock, sprocket holes, light, figure movement, editing patterns, and projection before an audience
- Fascination with new technologies following WWI (1914-1918)-->
- airplanes, machine warfare, new possibilities for speed, movement, and also destruction
- "avant-garde" and the shock of the new
solate objects or images that can generate or be assigned abstract meanings
Radical Cinema: 1960s Counter Culture/ Underground Film
A film practice that opposes the dominant culture, resists commodity status, invents its own means of production, and sets out to challenge habitual modes of perception is political-- no matter what it seems to be about (and sometimes because it's not about anything
Film-Maker's cooperative distribution, Film-Maker's Cinematheque, New American Cinema Group Manifesto
ilm as artistic expression that draws upon other art forms but has distinctive properties that make it cinematic.
Concerned with Form over Content
Revealing the visual materiality of film
flicker editing, fragmented images, out-of-focus images, color filters, non-matching film-stocks, tinting/ tonings, painted film, scratched film.
Drawing attention to film as a time-based medium
Techniques include the freeze frame, jump cuts, rapid/ flicker editing, extended long take (ex. Jeanne Dielman cutting potatoes)
Decentering or Fragmenting the Cinematic Gaze
Either drawing attention to or destroying the voyeuristic fantasy of cinema
Scientific Search" into topic (ex. Planet Earth, Cave of Forgotten Dreams)
identifies subject as being under investigation.
- Concerned with perspective: emphasis on symmetry and proportion
- Strictly follows "rule of thirds"
Emphasizes influence of social and economic conditions of an era on characters, events, and social institutions
Rule of thirds
basic composition guideline. Making use of a natural tendency for the eye to be drawn to a particular part of an image. Ensures the viewer focuses on what you want them to focus on
- Emphasis on form, line, composition over content
- Interest in artistic style, not concerned with representing reality
- Association with decorative or or modern art
- Almost mathematical precision
- Not one clear focal point
- Jean-Luc Godard, - François Truffaut,
- Éric Rohmer
Celebrated Hollywood filmmakers
- Nicholas Ray (Rebel Without a Cause),
- John Ford (The Searchers),
- John Huston (The Maltese Falcon),
- Samuel Fuller (Shock Corridor),
- Otto Preminger (Anatomy of a
- Alfred Hitchcock
edits that intentionally create gaps in the action to defy the norms of continuity
When the movement of the film image appears to stop so that it appears like a photographic still.
A shot that continues for an unusually lengthy time before the transition to the next shot.
Discontinuity/ Disjunctive Editing
- in short, disrupts our sense of time & space
- Draws our attention to the process: reminds us that we're watching a film
hat contributes to linear storytelling, clear sense of space & time. Does not draw attention to filmmaking.
Art Cinema Style
- Often violates CHS approaches to filmic time and space
- Reflects director's personal style and interests
The Auteur Theory
- The director as the controlling force and "author" of the movie.
- The movie is interpreted as a text, and the director is privileged as the controlling force of textual meaning
The Naturalistic Tradition
sets that are practical and do not draw attention because it is something that we expect
Art cinema assumes
a degree of enculturated cinematic intellect on behalf of the spectator that CHS doesn't.
Art Cinema Narrative
- Loose, episodic
- Not always linear (but still narrative)
- Psychologically motivated rather than goal oriented
- Often an unclear cause->effect relationship
- Open-ended (no clear sense of closure)
Soviet Cinema/ Montage Theory
- Political Anti-Capitalist Filmmaking
- No Stars or focus on individual actors/ characters
- The people "proletariat" are the focus
- Not created for passive viewership, meant for audience to actively engage
- Propagandistic (intentionally)-- meant to motivate the people to action
- Cinema for a revolution
The juxtaposition of a series of images to create an abstract idea not present in any one image.
cut into action that is happening simultaneously. This technique is also called parallel editing. It can create tension or suspense and can form a connection between scenes.
Increasingly personalized and interactive media experiences have emerged from a series of technological and industrial changes
- the dismantling of integral television texts into self-contained segments
- We watch on a range of devices - some fixed, others mobile
"Textual Poaching" as Media Participation
Readers (i.e. consumers) develop various strategies to make mass media texts their own. In some cases, this involves rewriting media texts (e.g. fan fiction, memes, mash-ups, etc.)
Unauthorized Transmedia Storytelling
the visual images and symbols used in a work of art or the study or interpretation of these.
a very typical example of a certain person or thing
Types of film genres
Drama, Historical Epics, Westerns, Crime films, Musicals, Comedies, Adventures, War, Horror, Science Fiction
Films known for physical humor and stunts; some of the first films were slapstick comedies.
a comic subgenre of the 1930s and 1940s known for fast talking and unpredictable action
a type of comedy whose likable and sensible main characters are placed in difficulties from which they are rescued at the end of the play, either attaining their ends or having their good fortunes restored.
A film genre set in the American West, typically featuring rugged, independent male characters on a quest or dramatizing frontier life.
concentrates on action and movement, developing a heroic character whose quests and battles serve to define the nation and its origins
with clearly identifiable moral types, coincidences, reversals of fortune, and music that underscores the action
A subgenre of the musical that is set in a theatrical milieu.
a subgenre of the musical that integrates musical numbers into the film's narrative, rather than setting them off as performances
a film genre that typically features criminals and individuals dedicated to crime detection and plots that involve criminal acts
films about the criminal underworld, typically set in the U.S. during prohibition in the 30's
comprised the "dark" moody American films of the 1940s; often focused on detectives or similar themes
Films set in idyllic countryside locales of Germany and Austria that depict a world of traditional folk values
presumes that a genre evolved to a point of perfection at some point in history and that one or more films at that point describe the generic ideal
relies less on historical precedent than on a formal or structural ideal that may or may not be actually seen, in a complete or pure form, in any specific film
a non-fiction film genre that, like the documentary film, uses footage of real events, places, and things, yet unlike the documentary is not structured into a larger argument, picture of the phenomenon or coherent whole.
early films that captured or sometimes re-created historical or newsworthy events
political documentaries that visibly support, and intend to sway viewers toward, a particular social or political issue or group
An approach to documentary filmmaking that employs an unobtrusive style in an attempt to give viewers as truthful and "direct" an experience of events as possible.
Organizational points of view, that shape their formal practices according to certain perspectives and attitudes.
examine and present both familiar and unfamiliar peoples and cultures as social activities
a film that documents the way of life in a foreign land
personal or subjective documentaries
documentary formats that emphasize the personal perspective or involvement of the filmmaker, often making the films resemble autobiographies or diaries
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