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Erik Erikson

creator of Ego Psychology. built upon Freudian theory but included an emphasis on adult development and the ability of the individual to solve problems.

How did Erikson's theory differ from Freud's?

Erikson agreed with most of Freud's theories but believed Freud had largely neglected the characteristics/development of healthy personalities. Believed development occured across the lifespan.

How many stages did Erikson identify?

He identified five Psychosocial stages of childhood (that correspond with Freud's psychosexual stages) and three stages of adulthood.

Trust vs. Mistrust

Stage 1 (birth-1 year) Quality of the infant's relationship with mother (including extent to which infant's need for food/stimulation or oral region) determines level of trust that is developed.

Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt

Stage 2 (2-3 yrs). Children gain sense of power, able to do things independently as they gain control over elimination system. Parents need to be balanced in firmness/patience. Too rigid here will result in adult overly compulsive/stingy.

Initiative vs Guilt

Stage 3 (3-6yrs). Child develops increased sense of competence (language, locomotion). Parents need to encourage or child will develop guilt.

Industry vs Inferiority

Stage 4 (6-11 yrs). Children engage in activities that require task completion. Children need tasks they found worthwile and can succeed in. (Children who have resolved Oedipal conflict will successfully transition through this phase.)

Identitiy vs Identity Diffusion

Stage 5 (12-18yrs). Changes in body/appearance lead to confusion to one's identity. If unable to succesfully negotiate this phase, may lack strong sense of who they are.

Intimacy vs Isolation

Stage 6 (19-mid 20's). moves adolescent into adulthood. Healthy identity needed in order to develop intimate, committed relationship with opp-sex member.

Generativity vs Stagnation/Self Absorbtion

Stage 7 (late 20s-50s). Individuals who have achieved intimacy in a committed relationship may have the desire to have children.

Integrity vs Despair

Stage 8 (60s and beyond). Adult who has a sense that life has been worthwhile will have a sense of ego integrity and will not fear death. (Or the opposite is true.)

Rene Spitz

associated with the psychoanalytic movement in America, specifically the ego development of the child and the relationship between mother and child. Observed children in hospital settings and the effects on children's psycho-emotional development.

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