Oral Pharmacology Cardiovascular Drugs
Oral Pharmacology for the Dental Hygienist Chapter 11
Terms in this set (49)
What is essential HTN?
AKA: Primary hypertension
-majority of cases (90%)
What is secondary HTN?
only small amount of population w/ HTN have an underlying condition known to raise BP
Classifications of HTN
Normal <120/80 (Check every 2yrs)
Prehypertension 120-139/85-89 (Check every yr)
Stage 1: 140-159/90-99 (Check every 2 mo)
Stage 2: 160+/110+ (Check < 1wk)
What is the systolic pressure?
Left ventricle contracts or pumps
What is diastolic pressure?
Left ventricle relaxes
Risk factors for HTN?
Family history of cardio disease
How is BP regulated quickly (short term)?
Autonomic nervous system (B1 receptors)
How is BP regulated long term?
What does your BP depend on?
What is heart failure?
output of the heart is insufficient to supply adequate levels of oxygen for the body
Primary tx for congestive heart failure
How does Digoxin work?
Increased strength of contraction
positive inotropic effecct = increased cardiac output
-Chronotropic effect = decreased heart rate
ADR for Digoxin
Narrow therapeutic index
- carefully monitor serum levels (dig levels)
*yellow vision, tachycaridia
Hypokalemia (low potassium) + Digoxin = Heart Arrhythmia
Side effects of diuretics
Other drugs that treat CHF
ACE Inhibitors ('pril" drugs)
CCB's ("dipine" drugs)
How much vasoconstrictor (EPI) is in a carpule of local anesthesia?
Maximum dose of vasoconstrictor for a healthy patient?
Maximum dose of vasoconstrictor for a sick pt?
0.04mg (two carpules)
What is arrhythmia?
Any rhythm other than sinus
Why do we call it sinus rhythm?
SA (sinoatrial) node
How do we treat and arrhythmia?
slow/suppress cardiac impulses so the sino-atrial node can take over the rhythm again
4 Classes of antiarrhythmia drugs
Class I: Na channel blockers; Lidocaine,
Class II: Beta-adrenergic blockers; "olol" drugs
Class III: K channel blockers; amiodorone
Class IV: Ca channel blockers "dipine" drugs
Which is the bad lipoprotein?
LDL, Low density lipoprotein
Which is the good lipoprotein?
HDL "high density lipoprotein"
What drugs decrease LDL in the blood stream?
What do statins inhibit? (how do they work?)
Less cholesterol formation
What are the side effects of statin drugs?
Myopathy (leg pain)
Two ways to thin the blood?
What drug is an anticoagulant?
What does Coumadin interfere with?
Vit K dependant clotting factors
What drugs should not be given with Coumadin?
Erythromycin (increase Coumadin levels)
Clarythromycin (increase Coumadin levels)
Aspirin (inihibit platelets)
NSAIDs (inihibit platelets)
What blood test tells you the patients Coumadin levels?
Must be > 3.5 for perio debridement
What drugs inhibit platelet aggregation?
Clopidogrel (Plavix) makes blood slick-reversible
Aspirin-inhibits platelets sticking together- not reversible
Most common anemia?
Iron deficiency anemia
What are the drugs used to treat HTN?
Thiazides- Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ)
Loop Diuretics- Lasix
Potassium-sparing diuretics- spironolactone
Pharmacodynamics of diuretics
Cause kidney to excrete NaCl
-water follows NaCl
Decrease blood volume
-decrease cardiac output
Pharmacodynamic of Thiazides and Loop Diuretics
Water and K follow Na
Pharmacodynamics of Potassium-sparing diuretics
No loss of potassium occurs
-no problems w/ arrhythmias
-no problems w/ Digoxin
Side effects of diuretics
Hypykalemia (arrythmia, digoxin toxicity)
Increased uric acid (worsens gout)
What are ACE Inhibitors? How do they work?
Pril drugs; tx HTN
Block Angiotensin converting enzyme
"April has Diabetes and High BP"
ADE of ACE Inhibitors
NSAIDs increase BP; decrease effectiveness of drug
What is losartan (Cozar)? And how does it work?
Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker (ARB)
-blocks Angiotensin receptors on vascular smooth muscle causing vasodilation, less SVR
What are CCBs?
Calcium causes muscle contraction so less Ca, less contraction, less SVR
Side effects of CCBs?
NSAIDs are okay to use
What is angina?
-not enough oxygen for demand
What is the primary cause of angina?
What are the two types of angina?
Stable- relieved by rest
Unstable- not relieved with rest; frequency and severity increases
What is the tx for angina?
Increase oxygen supply with nasal canula
Decrease oxygen demand will slow HR
Dilate and relax coronary blood vessels
Reduce load on heart
ADE of tx for angina