HDFS 312 Final
Terms in this set (127)
Persistent feeling of sadness or lose for >2 weeks
Lasts hours or days, not continuous
Is usually caused by external circumstances and related to a bad day, stress
is associated with physical symptoms such as insomnia, fatigue, diffused pain
Are older people more likely to have depression than younger people
Neurotransmitters involved in depression (their levels are lowered in depression). Which are they?
Dopamine, serotonine, norepinephrine
What are most antidepressants (SSRI, SDRI, NDRI) doing at the synapse?
-Prolong presence of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine at the synapse
-Block re-uptake of serotonin, dopamine or NE
-Increase the chance of binding of the neurotransmitters to the receptors
Who is more likely to be diagnosed with depression?
Can substance use or certain medications result in depression?
When some disorders and diseases tend to occur together. Ex. depression and substance abuse
Percentage of people (in country, in world) experience a certain disorder for a given time period
the number of new cases of a disease during some time period; probability of new cases
A theory that people find partners based on their similarity to each other is called
Some couples _________, namely, they live together before marriage or never get married, but share a household and have a committed, intimate, sexual relationship
A theory of relationships based on the idea each partner contributes something to the relationship the other would be hard pressed to provide is called
The idea that well-being of the family takes precedence over the concerns of individual family members is called...
The feeling that, as an adult child, one must care for one's parents; is called...
Socioemotional selectivity theory argues that social contact is motivated by a variety of goals, such as information seeking, self-concept, and emotional regulation. It also explains why older adults...
are more selective in making new finds, and tend to rely more on older friends and have smaller social circle
The family consisting only of parents and their children is called a
A married couple that has grown emotionally apart but still lives together is called
The person who gather family members together for celebrations and keeps them in touch with each other is called a...
People tend to have more friendships in
ABCDE is a model explaining different stages of...
The most common form of abuse towards older adults is_____
Lesbian relationships or marriages tend to be more egalitarian than heterosexual marriages
For couples with kids, marital satisfaction tends to decline until kids leave home.
The USA is the only developed industrialized country that does not provide mandatory parental leave or another form of paid leave in case of an ill child, ill parent or other family circumstances
Over 50% of pregnancies in the USA are unplanned
About 40% of births in the USA are to mother who are married
Traditionally, people were employed long-term in companies that provide retirement, health benefits, etc. However, the employment landscape is changing. By 2020, 40% of all American will be employed in flexible, short term- contracts. This is called the________.
Many baby boomers were forced back into the workforce as their retirement savings got depleted during the Great Recession in 2008
A specific occupation has an effect on one's need to derive meaning from work
Alignment of one's values with a form's mission is called...
How people build careers themselves as a result of their own personal characteristics and social context is described in the _____ _____ theory
Mark all six personality types that, according to Holland (1977), affect one's career choices:
In contrast to Holland's personality theory, the social cognitive career theory posits that people's career choices are heavily influenced by their
The realization that what you learn in the classroom does not always transfer directly into the "really world" and does not represent all that you need to know is called...
Job satisfaction typically increases with age
Passion is a strong inclination toward an activity individual like, value, and where they invest time and energy. Passion can be:
Feeling that what one is doing at work is meaningless, or cannot see the connection between what they do and the final product is called _____
A depletion of a person's energy and motivation, the loss of occupational idealism, and the feeling that one is being exploited is called
What are the main two reasons for which female professionals leave their jobs?
-When workplace idealize and reward masculine value of working
-Feeling of disconnection from the workplace and the need to achieve satisfaction, growth and development
The majority of people retire out of their own choice
What factors are important in satisfaction with one's retirement?
-Whether it was a choice or forced retirement
-Savings and financial security
-Supportive social network
Number of adults aged 65+ in the labor force is
Started in 1935, Social Security was designed to support people's lives one long years post-retirement
There are different ways in which people retire. Stepping down in hours/weeks or weeks/year (i.e., reducing the time spent at work per week or per year) is called _____
Other people moved into lower-paying jobs before full retirement, and these jobs are called _______.
Finally, reentry into labor force after a previous full-time retirement (often inform of self-employment) is called ______
The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) reassures the hiring, promotion, training, education, and other personnel actions are not influenced by person's age
Older people volunteer to....
-Maintain community ties
-Pursue personal development
-Have a sense of purpose
Leisure preferences in adulthood reflect those in an earlier life
Older people tend to...
-Have less absenteeism
-Have higher levels of commitment
-Are more reliable, focused, and dedicated
-Have equal ability to aquaria new skills
-Are more creative and innovative
What are the stages of the general adaptation syndrome?
In the initial response to stress, the ____ immunity goes into overdrive and ____ immunity gets suppressed. In chronic stress, both types of immunity become suppressed, which predisposes for various acute and chronic disease and opens the door for health problems in general
One of the earliest attempts to study stress was to assess a person's level of stress based on _____ (Holmes and Rahe, 1967). This rating scale consists of 43 life events with points assigned to them depending on how much stress they cause.
The stressful life-chains events (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) are only negative experiences
(Positive also such as pregnancy or vacation)
Pearlin (1980) made a distinction between short-term life events and chronic life strains when classifying the stressors
High demands with higher levels of control and a sense of accomplished
High demands but low control and low feeling of accomplishment
David Almeide (2005) distinguished stressors into major ____ and _____ stressors
David Almeida suggests that daily stressors and our reaction to them accumulate over time and have significant effects on our well-being
What are the symptoms of PTSD
-Intrusive thoughts about the event
-Re-expereincing the event in one's thought
-Bad dreams related to the event
-Numbing of general responses
-Increased overall stress arousal
-Avoiding stimuli associated with the event
PTSD does not decline over time and is not alleviated by social support
50% of people who experience a traumatic event will show PTSD right after the event
The ability to use different coping strategies (and having a broad repertoire of such strategies), depending on the situation, is called ____
The ability to match the best coping mechanisms to a specific situation is called ____
Goodness of fit
Acting in advance to diminish the impact of an anticipated stressful event (such as making a plan for the inevitable feel of finals, which will be stressful but can be better managed with preparation) is called _____
Which of the following are parts/mechanisms of proactive coping?
-Building a reserve of resources
-Recognizing potential stressors
-Initial appraisal of stressors
-Preliminary coping efforts
-Seeking feedback about one's success and acting on it
Having greater social support is related to lower mortality and chronic illness.
Objectivity measured social support, such as frequency of social interactions, is more important than the perceived social support
Social support can have negative effects on coping with stress, such as being perceived as intrusive or inaccurate
Buffering effect of social support means that
Due to social support the person copes better with the effect of stress and experiences less negative effects
After a stroke, John lost the ability to live independently. His children had to find him a room in a care facility. What can his kids do to increase John's feeling of personal control in this new situation?
Let him choose his meals, activities, and buy a wheelchair that will allow him to move around and explore
After a breakup with your romantic partner, which is an example of making accommodations?
Look back and see this relationship was not fulfilling
After a breakup, which one is would be secondary control mechanism?
Look back and see this relationship was not fulfilling (Secondary control: reappraising the situation to minimize emotional losses)
Primary control striving remains relatively stable over the lifespan
Losses in primary control capacity in older age can be compensated by increased use of secondary control
Feeling of having personal control over your life and performance
-increases you well-bing
-Can increase cognitive performance
-Positively affects your health
Multidimensionality of personal control means that
It can relate to different domains such as relationships, health, time management, career
Sense of control over health
Is on average until early 70s then declines
Is secondary control or making accommodations always a response to age-related losses
Getting a facelift is which type of control strategies over aging processes?
If a kitten believes he is a lion, which personal control strategy does it represent?
Immunizing mechanisms (Look for alternative explanations, denial)
A man is 104 and broke 100m sprint record. However he competes only within his age category. Which control strategy (to keep the record) is it?
Making accommodations (readjust their goals to lessen negative self-evaluations)
Human behavior is a result of interactions of the person and...
Using toilet, eating meals, dressing up are examples of:
Instrumental activâtes of daily living (IADL): which of the following is NOT an IADL?
If an older person (permanently) needs help with _____ of ADL, he/she is considered frail.
In which of the following housing situations older adults have most independence?
Which care facility is designed for people with cognitive impairments and dementia?
Special care unit
Which housing type provides held with ADL?
-Special Care Unit
Home modifications such as installing wheelchair ramps are examples of:
Will a person with cognitive impairment (not being able to take own decisions) be admitted to independent living/congregate housing facility?
Which is not a typical characteristic of residents of nursing homes?
Independent with all IADLs
A legal document in which a person specifies what actions should be taken for their health if they are not longer able to make decisions for themselves because of illness of incapacity is called ____. In the US. The (PSDA) went into effect in December 1991, and required healthcare provides (primarily hospitals, nursing homes and home health agencies) to give patients information about their rights to make ___ under state law.
The situation of becoming disabled later in life with a shorter period of disability before death is called compression of.....
Situations or factors that make the health condition worse that it was originally are called...
What are the risk factors for developing a disability in later life?
-Low socioeconomic status
-Being a woman
How well the person is functioning in daily life is defined as ___ ___ status.
A typical hierarchy of loss of function starts with decreased
Frailty is typically associated with a specific health condition
Computing the average longevity of people currently 50-years-old (in other words, the future average longevity of those people who are not 50):
Does not include anyone who was born is the same year but died before age 50
The oldest age to which any individual of a species lives is called
Average longevity or life expectancy for both men and women is the US is increasing
The shortest human average longevity in the role is below 40 years
Genetic factors are estimated to a count for about ____% of individual differences in longevity
Access to vaccinations _____ average longevity
Women's longevity increased over the last 200 years because of...
Less mortality during childbirth
In general, women outlive men by 5 to 7 years. However, this differences may not be that visible in developing countries. What factors may contribute to lower average longevity in women there?
-Infanticide of female babies
-Death during childbirth
-In patriarchal societies, less access to nutrition and healthcare than men
Avoiding disease, being engaged in life, maintaining high cognitive and physical functioning
An approach that emphasizes factors that support and promote health, rather than factors that cause disease
Quality of life
Overall well-being and life satisfaction, assessed subjectivity
What is successful aging as defined by biomedical theories?
-Absence of chronic disease
-High levels of independent physical functioning, performance, mobility
-High cognitive functioning
The most well known and widely published biomedical studies of successful aging are...
The MacArthur studies of successful aging
"Usual" or healthy aging is the same as "successful aging"
"usual declining": normal decline in physical, social, and cognitive functioning with age, heightened by entropic factors
"successful aging": functional loss is minimized (little or not age related decrement in physiological and cognitive functioning, with extrinsic factors playing a neutral or positive role)
Components of successful aging are:
-Absence or avoidance of disease and risk factors for disease
-Maintenance of physical and cognitive functioning
Sociopsychological models of successful aging emphasize
-Social participation and functioning
-Psychological resources, including personal growth
Efforts to avoid the development of complications or secondary chronic conditions, manage the pain associated with the primary chronic condition, and sustain life through medical intervention is called:
Vaccinations that prevent contracting disease belong to
Aerobic expertise, defined as expertise at 60-90% of a person's maximal heart rate, has well-known benefits for the body, mind, brain, and well-being. The recommended weekly amount of moderate aerobic expertise is:
Reducing the intake of saturated fats or trans fats is beneficial for cardiovascular health and general health
Which of the "fatty chemicals" are the good ones?
High-density lipoprotein (HDL)
Body mass index, BMI, is calculated as weight/height(cm)2
A BMI of 31 is considered:
Often a more adequate measure of metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular risk than BMI is...
Most people consider themselves as aging successfully, even if they have a chronic disease or other health issues.
The most common definition of successful aging (when asking lay people) is related to