15 terms

Biotechnology

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karyotype
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs.
amniocentesis
collection of a small amount of amniotic fluid for analysis of possible fetal abnormalities
restriction enzyme
Enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific sequence of nucleotides. Found in bacteria
recombinant DNA
DNA produced by combining DNA from different sources.
plasmid
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of the bacterial chromosome
transgenic
An organism that contains DNA from two or more organisms
gene therapy
The insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
cloning
a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
gel electrophoresis
Procedure used to separate and analyze DNA fragments by placing a mixture of DNA fragments at one end of a porous gel and applying an electrical voltage to the gel
DNA fingerprinting
Any technique for identifying individuals based on the unique features of their genome
GMO
Genetically modified organism. Their DNA has been altered in some way; a gene is silenced, added or removed
genetic engineering
A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally.
artificial selection
Breeding organisms with specific traits in order to produce offspring with identical traits
selective breeding
The process of selecting a few organisms with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
surrogate
one acting in place of another (female carrying another's baby)
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