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US History Final Exam Review 2019
Terms in this set (93)
Which technology did Henry Ford use to mass-produce automobiles?
The belief that relations with other countries should be guided by national self-interest is
What were the five contributing factors that led to the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914?
militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism, and assassination
How did Germany's U-boats violate international law?
by attacking merchant ships without letting passengers flee to safety
Who was the general in command of the Continental Army during the American Revolution?
What revolutionary process transformed how iron was turned into steel?
the Bessemer process
What was the first constitution of the United States?
the Articles of Confederation
In drafting the Constitution of the United States, the framers debated Enlightenment ideas such as
the separation of powers
To resolve the issue of representation in the House of Representatives, the framers of the Constitution compromised by
deciding to count every five slaves as equal to three whites.
What one of Congress's more notable achievements under the Articles of Confederation?
the creation of policies for the settlement of western lands
What was a major Anti-Federalist concern about the Constitution?
the lack of a bill of rights
The first ten amendments to the Constitution are known as the
Bill of Rights.
Why did African Americans, during Reconstruction, welcome the Thirteenth Amendment?
It abolished slavery.
What government policy helped advance the industrialization of the United States in the late 1800s?
Which war did the United States enter partly as a result of unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic Ocean?
How did industrialization and immigration affect the United States in the late 1800s and early 1900s?
The urban population soared
Why was child labor so widespread during the late 1800s?
Many poor families needed the income that a working child could produce, and businesses needed cheap labor.
What was the goal of election reforms in the 1900s?
to return political power to the people
Which president exerted American influence overseas through his Big Stick Policy?
Which group applied Christian teachings to social and economic reform?
the Social Gospel movement
Rockefeller, Carnegie, and other industrialists formed monopolies and trusts in order to
What were the main issues that concerned labor unions in the late 1800s?
wages, hours, and working conditions
What action did the United States take in order to be able to build the Panama Canal?
helped Panama win a revolution against Colombia
Presidents Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson are all considered Progressives because they
challenged the power of big business and worked to end government corruption.
What event during World War I showed how a response to economic opportunity could also result in significant social change?
the Great Migration
During the Scopes trial in 1925, modernists and Christian fundamentalists clashed over the subject of
Presidents Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, and Herbert Hoover strongly believed in promoting
In the years following World War I, several bombings by radical groups led to a government campaign against subversives. What was the name given to these events?
the Red Scare
What event in the post-World War I period helped women assume greater political power?
ratification of the 19th Amendment
Through his poetry and prose, writer Langston Hughes took part in the
What happened in the 1920s that severely cut back on the number of immigrants entering the United States?
the establishment of a quota system
Overproduction, underconsumption, and stock speculation all helped cause
the Great Depression
Which New Deal programs still has an impact on many Americans today?
Social Security Act
Critics said that President Franklin Roosevelt's plan to pack the Supreme Court with justices who supported the New Deal posed a threat to the
system of checks and balances
Which event directly caused the United States to enter World War II?
the attack of Pearl Harbor
In World War II, instead of trying to overcome the Germans and the Japanese at the same time, the Allies pursued a strategy of winning
Why is the Battle of Midway considered a turning point in World War II?
This impressive American victory turned out to be Japan's last offensive battle of the war.
More than six million Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, and others died as a result of the
Which reason most influenced President Truman's decision to drop the first atomic bomb?
Japan refused American demands to surrender unconditionally
What key foreign policy strategy was put in place as part of the Truman Doctrine?
After World War II, millions of demobilized soldiers found jobs, went to college, and bought homes with the help of the:
Unlike Great Britain, the United States emerged from World War II
fully prepared to take an expanding role in world affairs.
McCarthyism developed and thrived because Americans had a strong fear of
communists in government
During World War II, race riots occurred in several cities when African Americans migrating out of the South
competed with white workers for jobs and housing
In 1956, to meet the travel needs of civilians and the military, Congress authorized construction of:
an interstate highway system
What happened in 1957 that raised competition between the United States and the Soviet Union to a new level?
the launching of Sputnik
What event triggered the start of the Cuban Missile Crisis?
the discovery that the Soviet Union was building missile-launching sites in Cuba
How did the Tet Offensive change the course of the Vietnam War?
It turned American public opinion against the war effort.
In the 1990s, the United States joined with Mexico and Canada in an economic partnership known as the:
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
Which of President Reagan's policies led to increased federal spending to pay the interest on the national debt?
Franklin Roosevelt's approach to ending the Great Depression marked the start of a period in which the
powers of the president increased dramatically.
What was the main effect of the Supreme Court decision in the case Brown v. Board of Education (1954)?
Public schools began to desegregate.
Who relied on the tactic of nonviolent protest as the leader of the Montgomery Bus Boycott and other actions in support of civil rights?
Martin Luther King, Jr.
What piece of legislation, signed into law by Lyndon Johnson, banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin?
the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Which of these factors helped lead to the movement for women's rights in the 1960s?
women generally earned less than men
Which event caused Congress to pass the Twenty-sixth Amendment, which gave 18-year-olds the right to vote?
the Vietnam War
How did the Immigration Act of 1965 transform American society?
By lifting quotas, it allowed many more immigrants from all over the world to enter the United States.
Why did the Watergate break-in become a constitutional crisis?
President Nixon used his executive powers to try to cover up the break-in.
a tax on imported goods
the convention held in Philadelphia in 1787 to draft the Constitution of the United States
an economic system in which factories, equipment, and other means of production are privately owned rather than controlled by government
Sherman Antitrust Act
an 1890 federal law that outlawed trusts, monopolies, and other forms of business that restricted trade
negotiations between employers and employees concerning wages, working conditions, and other terms of employment
a run-down apartment building
a problem that causes people to immigrate to another place
an attraction that draws immigrants to another place
a journalist who wrote about social, environmental, and political problems Americans faced in the early 1900s
a reform movement calling for moderation in drinking alcohol
a vocational college for African Americans in Alabama, founded by Booker T. Washington
a constitutional change ratified in 1913 allowing the federal government to impose an income tax
a constitutional change ratified in 1913 requiring the direct election of senators by popular vote
the declaration by President James Monroe in 1823 warning European powers against future colonization in the Western Hemisphere or interference in Latin American republics
the exaggerated style of newspaper reporting during the 1890s that was sparked by the rivalry between two New York City newspapers and helped inflame public support for war with Spain
provisions in the Cuban constitution, added as a condition for the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 1902, allowing the United States to intervene in Cuban affairs and to buy or lease land for naval bases
President Theodore Roosevelt's assertion that, as a direct corollary of the Monroe Doctrine, the United States could intervene to preserve peace and order in the Western Hemisphere and protect U.S. interests
Open Door Policy
a U.S. policy issued in 1899 stating that foreign nations must allow free trade in China
beginning in 1915, before U.S. entry into World War I, a movement led by former president Theodore Roosevelt that called on the government to increase U.S. military strength and convince Americans of the need for U.S. involvement in the war
in World War I, the final Allied offensive that brought about the end of the war
a nickname for members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), an anticapitalist labor organization founded in 1905
at the end of World War I, a 14-part plan for peace presented by President Woodrow Wilson to Congress on January 8, 1918
League of Nations
an international organization established by the Allied powers at the close of World War I to promote international peace and security
policies, views, and actions that discriminate against Jewish people
a movement, led by Marcus Garvey during the 1910s and 1920s, that promoted the return of blacks living all over the world to Africa
a dance that originated as an African American folk dance in the South and became popular throughout the United States and Europe during the Roaring Twenties
during the Roaring Twenties, a young woman who broke with traditional expectations for how women should dress and behave
a financial crisis in which a large number of customers simultaneously attempt to withdraw their money from a bank out of fear that the bank will close
Federal Reserve System
the central banking authority of the United States, which manages the nation's money supply
an economic policy in which the government attempts to indirectly aid the needy by promoting economic growth at the business level in the hope that it will influence prosperity at all levels
during the Great Depression, a shantytown of makeshift dwellings
yielding to an enemy's demands in order to maintain peace
a competition between nations to achieve the more powerful weapons arsenal
the large increase in the number of babies born in proportion to the size of the population that took place after World War II and lasted until 1964
War Powers Resolution
a resolution passed by Congress in 1973 placing strict limits on a president's powers to use armed forces in hostilities without congressional approval
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