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APUSH Chapter 10 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (27)
A document by George Washington in 1796, when he retired from office. It wasn't given orally, but printed in newspapers. It did not concern foreign affairs; most of it was devoted to domestic problems. He stressed that we should stay away from permanent alliances with foreign countries; temporary alliances wouldn't be quite as dangerous, but they should be made only in "extraordinary emergencies". He also spoke against partisan bitterness. This document was rejected by the Jeffersonians, who favored the alliance with France.
Kentucky and Virginia Resolution
Were put into practice in 1798 by Jefferson and James Madison. These were secretly made to get the rights back taken away from the Alien and Sedition Acts. These also brought about the later compact theory which gave the states more power than the federal government.
Jay Treaty of 1794
Offered little concessions from Britain to the US and greatly disturbed the Jeffersonians. ___ was able to get Britian to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on US soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. The British, however, would not promise to leave American ships alone in the future, and they decided that the Americans still owed British merchants for pre-Revolutionary war debts. Because of this, many Southerners especially, were angry and rioted and called ___ the "Damn'd Arch Traitor".
Pinckey Treaty of 1795
Gave America what they demanded from the Spanish: Free navigation of the Mississippi, large area north of Florida. (helped America to have unexpected diplomatic success) Jay Treaty helped prompt the Spanish to deal with the port of New Orleans.
Convention of 1800 Treaty
Signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America. Napoleon was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Louisiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America.
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
issued by George Washington, established isolationist policy, proclaimed goverment's official neutrality in widening European conflicts also warned American citizens about intervening on either side of conflict.
Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
Contains four parts: 1) Raised the residence requirement for American citizenship from 5 to 14 years. 2) Alien Act - Gave the President the power in peacetime to order any alien out of the country. 3) Alien Enemies Act - permitted the President in wartime to jail aliens when he wanted to. (No arrests made under the Alien Act or the Alien Enemies Act.) 4) The Sedition Act - Key clause provided fines and jail penalties for anyone guilty of sedition. Was to remain in effect until the next Presidential inauguration.
The Federalist Party has passed the Alien and Sedition Acts to regulate the strong opinions of the Republicans. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison protested the laws by writing the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, which asked the states to declare the laws null. They thought it was the rightful remedy. Virginia and Kentucky were only states that voted for this, which is to make a law invalid.
Began in 1789 with some nonviolent restrictions on the king, but became more hostile in 1792 when France declared war on Austria. Seeking help from America, the French pointed to the Franco-American alliance of 1778. Not wanting to get involved for fear of damage to the trade business, Washington gave the Neutrality Proclamation, which made America neutral. This led to arguments between Americans and French. After fighting with the French over such things as the Jay Treaty, the Americans came to peace with France in 1800.
A Federalist who was Vice President under Washington in 1789, and later became President by three votes in 1796. Known for his quarrel with France, and was involved in the XYZ Affair, Quasi War, and the Convention of 1800. Later though he was also known for his belated push for peace with France in 1800. Regarding his personality he was a "respectful irritation".
Foreign Minister; In 1797, Adams sent a diplomatic commission to France to settle matters about the upset of the Jay Treaty of 1794. The French thought that America was siding with the English violating the Franco-American Treaty of 1778. The commission was sent to talk to __________ about the seizing of American ships by the French. Communication between the commission and __________ existed between three go betweeners (XYZ) because talking to __________ in person would cost a quarter of a million dollars. Americans soon negotiated and this act subtly started an undeclared war with France.
The amendment states that the enumeration in the constitution shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. It was written by James Madison in 1791 to stop the possibility that enumerating such rights might possibly lead to the assumption that the rights were the only ones protected.
The last Amendment of the Bill of Rights which was created to protect American citizens natural rights. The amendment states that the "powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states and the people." This allows for a strong central government but it does not allow it to become all powerful by still allowing states and people rights.
One of the nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jefferson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central government, and strong states' rights.
Judiciary Act of 1789
Organized the Supreme Court, originally with five justices and a chief justice, along with several federal district and circuit courts. It also created the attorney general's office. This created the judiciary branch of the US Government and thus helped to shape the future of this country.
1) He was a representative of the French Republic who came to America in order to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Revolution. 2) He landed in Charleston SC around 1793 after the outbreak of war between France and Britain. 3) The actions were exposing the new vulnerable government. It also showed how the government was maturing.
Means having to do with agriculture. The agrarian society were the farmers and plantation owners of the south. This was the society that Jefferson wanted to see become the future of America. He appreciated the many virtuous and beneficial characteristics.
a tax on the manufacturing of an item. Helped Hamilton to achieve his theory on a strong central government, supported by the wealthy manufacturers. This tax mainly targeted poor Western front corn farmers (Whiskey). This was used to demonstrate the power of the Federal Government, and sparked the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.
A body of executive department heads that serve as the cheif advisers to the President. Formed during the first years of Washington's Presidency, the original members included the Secretary of State, of the Treasury, and of War. It's extremely important to the presidency, because these people influence the most powerful man in the nation.
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the Constitution, the bill of rights was added in 1791 when it was adopted by the necessary number of states. It guarantees such civil liberties as freedom of speech, free press, and freedom of religion. Written by James Madison.
A small rebellion, that began in Southwestern Pennsylvania in 1794 that was a challenge to the National Governments unjust use of an excise tax on an "economic medium of exchange." Washington crushed the rebellion with excessive force, proving the strength of the national governments power in its military, but was condemned for using a "sledge hammer to crush a gnat."
Chief Justice of the United States; in 1794, George Washington sent him to negotiate a treaty with England; his treaty was a failure because it didn't mention British impressments and America had to pay Pre-Revolutionary debts. It did prevent a war with England and helped in the signing of the Pinckney Treaty with Spain.
Jefferson and his states' right disciples believed the Constitution should be interpreted "literally" or "strictly". The reason why was to protect individual rights. Jefferson did not want the Bank of the United States, Hamilton thought it would not only be proper, but also necessary. Jefferson thought it was up to the states and Hamilton thought it was up to Congress. The Bank was created by Congress in 1791. Having a strong central government made people fear that their rights would be taken away from them.
Part of Hamilton's economic theory. Stated that the federal government would assume all the states' debts for the American Revolution. This angered states such as Virginia who had already paid of their debts.
Refers to the powers of the government found in the constitution in unwritten forms. Although some situations, such as the creation of the National Bank, are not specifically referred to in the constitution through the elastic clause they are not illegal or unconstitutional. After Hamilton was appointed head of treasury in 1789, debates began between his interpretation of the constitution and Jefferson's views. Eventually this became an issue contributing to the formation of political parties.
Under the executive branch of the new constitution, he was the Secretary of State. When Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a new national bank, he adamantly spoke against it. He felt it would violate states rights by causing a huge competitor for the state banks, then causing a federal monopoly. His argument was that since the Constitution did not say Congress could create a bank they should not be given that power. This is the philosophy of strict construction. His beliefs led to the creation of the political party, Democratic Republicans.
Great political leader; youngest and brightest of Federalists; "father of the National Debt"; from New York; became a major general; military genius; Secretary of Treasury; lived from 1755-1804; became Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington in 1789; established plan for economy that went in to affect in 1790 including a tariff that passed in 1789, the assumption of state debts which went into affect in 1790, and excise on different products (including whiskey) in 1791, and a plan for a national bank which was approved in 1791; plan to take care of the national debt.
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