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AP World History Ways of the World Chapters 18-20
Terms in this set (61)
Mechanical device in which the steam from heated water builds up pressure to drive a piston, rather than relying on human or animal muscle power, steam engine allowed increase in productivity, made Industrial Revolution possible.
socialism in the United States
Fairly minor political movement in the United States, at its height in 1912 gaining 6 percent of the vote for its presidential candidate.
Russian Revolution of 1905
Rebellion that erupted in Russia after the country's defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905, revolution was suppressed but forced government to make substantial reforms.
Used by Karl Marx to describe the industrial working class; originally used in ancient Rome to describe the poorest part of the urban population.
American political movement that advocated reform measures to correct the ills of industrialization.
(Late 19th century) American political movement that denounced corporate interests of all kinds.
Peter the Great
Tsar of Russia who attempted a massive reform of Russian society to catch up with the states of Western Europe.
Socialist thinker and wealthy mill owner who created an ideal industrial community at New Lanark, Scotland.
First automobile affordable enough for a mass market; produced by American industrialist Henry Ford.
Belief system of the middle class that developed in Britain; emphasized thrift, hard work, rigid moral behavior, cleanliness, and "respectability".
Long and bloody war in which Mexican reformers from the middle class joined with workers and peasants to overthrow the dictator Porfirio Diaz and create a new, much more democratic political order.
Karl Marx *
Most influential proponent of socialism, German expatriate in England who advocated working-class revolution as the key to creating an ideal communist future.
lower middle class
Social class that developed in Britain, consisted of people employed in the service sector as clerks, salespeople, secretaries, police officers, etc. Comprised about 20% of Britain's population by 1900.
Pen name of the main leader of Russian Revolution of 1917.
Latin American Export Boom
Large-scale increase in Latin American exports to industrializing countries, mostly raw materials and foodstuffs. Possible by improvements in shipping, boom benefited mostly upper/middle classes.
British working-class political party, dedicated to reforms and peaceful transition to socialism, alternative to revolutionary emphasis of Marxism.
Indian Cotton textiles
Well-made and inexpensive cotton textiles from India flooded Western markets; competition stimulated British textile industry to industrialize, which led to the eventual destruction of the Indian textile market both in Europe and in India.
Elected representative assembly created in Russia by Tsar Nicholas II in response to the 1905 revolution.
Mexican dictator who was eventually overthrown in a long and bloody revolution.
Latin American's economic growth, largely financed by foreign capital and dependent on European and North American prosperity and decisions.
Major international conflict in which British and French forces defeated Russia; the defeat prompted reforms within Russia.
Military strongman who seized control of a government in Latin America.
Caste War of Yucatan.
Long revolutionary struggle of Maya people in Mexico against European and mestizo intruders.
British Royal Society
Association of scientists established in England that was dedicated to promotion of "useful knowledge"
Used by Karl Marx to describe owners of industrial capital, "townspeople".
Abd al-Hamid II
Ottoman sultan (reigned 1876-1909) who accepted a reform constitution but then quickly suppressed it, ruling as a reactionary autocrat for the rest of his long reign
rising of Chinese militia organizations in 1900 in which large numbers of Europeans and Chinese Christians were killed
the collapse of this nation's imperial order, officially at the hands of organized revolutionaries but for the most part under the weight of the troubles that had overwhelmed the government for the previous half-century
feudal lords of Japan who retained substantial autonomy under the Tokugawa shogunate and only lost their social preeminence in the Meiji restoration
Chinese religious leader (1814-1864) who sparked the Taiping Uprising and won millions to his unique form of Christianity, according to which he himself was the younger brother of Jesus, sent to establish a "heavenly kingdom of great peace" on earth
term commonly used to describe areas that were dominated by Western powers in the nineteenth century but that retained their own governments and a measure of independence, e.g., Latin America and China
the overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan in 1868, restoring power at long last to the emperor Meiji
US navy commodore who in 1853 presented the ultimatum that led Japan to open itself to more normal relations with the outside world
two wars fought between Western powers and China (1839-1842 and 1856-1858) after China tried to restrict the importation of foreign goods, especially opium; China lost both wars and was forced to make major concessions
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1905
ending in a Japanese victory, this war established Japan as a formidable military competitor in East Asia and precipitated the Russian Revolution of 1905
armed retainers of the Japanese feudal lords, famed for their martial skills and loyalty; in the Tokugawa shogunate, they gradually became an administrative elite, but they did not lose their special privileges until the Meiji restoration
China's program of internal reform in the 1860s and 1870s, based on vigorous application of Confucian principles and limited borrowing from the West
Ottoman sultan (reigned 1789-1807) who attempted significant reforms of his empire, including the implementation of new military and administrative structures
"the sick man of Europe"
Western Europe's unkind nickname for the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a name based on the sultans' inability to prevent Western takeover of many regions and to deal with internal problems; it fails to recognize serious reform efforts in the Ottoman state during this period
an application of the concept "survival of the fittest" to human history in the nineteenth century
massive Chinese rebellion that devastated much of the country between 1850 and 1864; it was based on the millenarian teachings of Hong Xiuquan
important reform measures undertaken in the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1839; the first word of this is a term that means "reorganization"
rulers of Japan from 1600 to 1868
series of nineteenth-century treaties in which China made major concessions to Western powers
group of would-be reformers in the mid-nineteenth-century Ottoman Empire that included lower-level officials, military officers, and writers; they urged the extension of Westernizing reforms to the political system
movement of Turkish military and civilian elites that developed circa 1900, eventually bringing down the Ottoman Empire
Africanization of Christianity
The conversion of millions to Christianity, who maintained traditions with new Christian ideas; continued using charms and medicines, believing in old gods and spirits
System in South Africa to limit the social and political integration of whites and blacks
Prominent scholar and political leader who argued that every civilization has its own unique contribution to show the world
Large-scale agricultural production of crops to sell in the market rather than for consumption by the farmers
A pattern of European racism in Asian and African colonies, creating racial divides, and limited native access to education and the civil service system because of notions of racial superiority
European tendency to invent new distinct tribes, reinforcing that African societies were primitive (and inferior) to Europeans
Congo Free State
African nation ruled by Belgium; Leopold II's rule here is known to be the worst abuse of Europe's second wave of colonization, resulting in millions of deaths
The King of Belgium; his rule of the Congo Free State is thought of as the worst abuse of Europe's second wave of colonization, resulting in millions of deaths
System of forced labor in the Netherlands' East Indies where peasants had to cultivate at least 20 percent of their land in cash crops to sell to low and fixed prices to government contractors, who earned large profits
Indian Rebellion, 1857-1858
Massive uprising of India against British rule, known as Indian Mutiny or Sepoy Mutiny as the rebellion first broke out among Indian troops in British employ
Term used to describe areas (like Latin America and China) that were dominated by Western Powers but still retained their own governments and a measure of independence
invention of tradition
A process in many colonial states of forging ways of belonging and self-identification that defined and mythologized the region's past
scramble for Africa
The process of the European countries' partition of Africa in the late 19th century
Leading religious figure in 19th century India; advocate of revived Hinduism and its mission to reach out to the spiritually impoverished West
The main beneficiaries in Western colonies in Asia and Africa; schooled in the imperial power's language and practices, became a part of the social hierarchy, but led anticolonial movements due to inequality to win equal state to colonizers
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