UVM GEOG 050 Final
Terms in this set (100)
What are the two primary branches of geography?
Physical and Human
What are some distortions of the Mercator Projection?
Greenland is the same size as Africa
Finland Appears with a greater north south extent than india
What is the name of a map that uses purposeful distortion to represent some terrestrial phenomena?
The global social, economic, and political division that exists between wealthier, developed nations and pooer, developing nations is known as the...
North south divide
The market-driven approach to economic and social policies that grants power to the private sector in matters of political and economic priorities of the state is known as..
__________ focuses on how political institutions, the political environment and economic systems influence each other
Food security would not be diminished by...
Improved methods of sustainable agriculture
Factors that either drive people from their homelands or attract migrants to certain locations are known (together) as
Push-Pull forces of migration
A disadvantage of using GDP per capita as a measure of economic development is the fact that GDP per capita:
May hide intense disparities in income
Mission of the World Trade Organization
Establish ground rules for international trade and lower trade barriers
The term _______ refers to the unrestricted international exchange of goods, services, and capital
_______ Refers to the growth of worldwide linkages and the changes these linkages bring about in daily life, especially in economic, political, cultural, and environmental spheres.
The process whereby humans used selective breeding to develop plants for use as food, construction materials, and sources of energy, or to improve life in other ways is known as _________
_________ refers to the maximum number of people that a given territory can support sustainably with food, water, and other essential resources.
The term "virtual water" refers to:
The total amount of water used to produce a product
Founded in 2007, this organization uses time-lapse photography, conventional photography and video to document the effects of global warming on glacial ice
Extreme Ice Survey
An Amendment to a United Nations treaty on global warming, the ________ is an international agreement, adopted in 1997 an in force in 2005, that sets binding targets for industrialized countries for the reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases
Historically, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 have typically ranged between _____ PPM and _____ PPM
170 and 300
What mountain range separates "European" Russia from Western Siberia
The cold climate condition in which the ground is permanently frozen for at least two consecutive years is
The region that contains the highest population concentration in contemporary russia is known as the...
What describes ethnic Russian population trends in Russia today?
There is a rapidly aging population and low birth rates
This faction within the Russian communist movement was led by Vladimir Lenin and successfully took control of the country in 1917
What was the Soviet's ideology on the environment?
Nature is the servant of industrial and agricultural progress
This sea, which was once the 4th largest lake in the world, has shrunk to 10% of its original size due to large scale, socket era irrigation and river diversion projects
Literally "restructuring" _______ refers to a program of partially implemented, planned economic reforms undertaken during the Gorbachev years in the Soviet Union designed to make the Soviet economy efficient and responsive to consumer needs
This policy of the Soviet Union was designed to spread Russian settlers and influences to non-russian areas of the country in order to assert political control
The chernobyl nuclear plant was located in
The individuals responsible for clearing radioactive graphite from the roof of the Chernobyl reaction, and who were exposed to between 6-8 times the lethal dose of radiation were known as the
With numbers approximating 240,000 this group of recovery workers were responsible for cleaning up much of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Included in this group were positions such as: firefighters, soil burners, medical personnel, construction workers, and shovelers
Derived from sociologist Ulrich Beck, this term refers to the dangers associated with living in modern, industrialized societies.
Generally regarded as the longest river in the world, this river flows north through northeastern Africa and empties in to the Mediterranean Sea
The predominate climate pattern of North Africa/ Southwest Asia is best described as:
The Arc of lush, fertile land formed by the uplands of the Tigris and Euphrates river systems and the Zagros mountains, Where nomadic people s began the earliest known agricultural communities is known as ______
The fertile Crescent
The accumulation of salts in the upper layer of soil resulting from irrigation with water of higher natural salt content and/or irrigation of soils that contain a high level of mineral salts is known as____________
The population statistic that relates the number of people in a country to the amount of arable land is called
virtual water refers to
the volume of water used to produce all that a person consumes in a year
The traditional subsistence agricultural system in which practitioners and communities depend on the seasonal movements of livestock within marginal natural environments is known as
This powerful intergovernmental and international organization of 15 oil producing nations has a hand in influencing and regulating the global prices and supplies of oil
Organization of the petroleum countries (OPEC)
_______ Is a systematic study of conflict and cooperation between states over water resources that transcend international borders.
This world bank planned pipeline will provide potable water to Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian territories, bring sea water to stabilize the dead sea water level and generate electricity to support the energy needs of the project
Red sea Dead sea water conveyance
_______ Is caused by lack of investment in infrastructure or technology to draw water from rivers, aquifers or other water sources, or insufficient human capacity to satisfy the demand for water
Economic Water Scarcity
_________ Refers to the political, social, economic and administrative systems in place that influence water's use and management. Essentially, who gets what water, when and how, and who has the right to water and related services and their benefits
____________ are a subset of environmental migrants who were forced to flee due to sudden or gradual alterations in the natural environment related to at least one of three impacts of climate change: sea level rise, extreme weather events and drought and water scarcity
_____________ Refers to a set of goals adopted by the UN in 2015 to end poverty protect the planet and ensure prosperity for all as part of a new sustainable development agenda. Each goal has specific targets to be achieved over the next 15 years
Sustainable Development Goals
The semi-desert, grassy region at the southern fringe of the Sahara desert which extends from sendal to Sudan, is known as:
This generally continuous trench, which runs from northern Syria to central Mozambique is caused by the splitting of the African tectonic plate into two separate plates
Great rift valley
The triangular Peninsula that juts out from norther Africa, and which includes the nations of somalia, ethiopia, eritrea, and Djibouti is called the
Horn of Africa
Farming that provides only enough food for the family of the farmer
The demographic variable that identifies the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime is known as:
Total fertility rate
______________ Is the state oil corporation which the federal government of Nigeria regulates and participates in the country's petroleum industry
The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC)
Estimates for the number of barrels of oil spilled per year in Nigeria
The deliberate intensification of divisions and conflicts by potential rulers is known as____________.
Divide and rule
What was the name of the policy in south africa that mandated the racial segregation of its population much to the detriment of people of color
The term that refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources tend to have less economic growth and worse development than countries with fewer natural resources
The removal and storage of carbon taken from the atmosphere
Dual Roots development
Economic development projects designed to provide sustainable livelihoods in rural and urban areas
El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
A reversal of wind and water currents in the South Pacific about every 5 years
a large increase in crop production in developing countries achieved by the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and high-yield crop varieties.
The effort to find commercially useful compounds by studying organisms—especially species
The commercial development of naturally occurring biological materials, without fair compensation to the peoples or nations in whose territory the materials were originally discovered.
The Case of Neem
USDA and US pharmaceutical firm receive patent on extraction technique of neem oil
a religion founded in India in the sixth century BC, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore shouldn't be harmed. Mahavira founded this religion.
sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life
The four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.
A group of islands
A phenomenon in which algae inside corals die, causing the corals to turn white.
A system in which close friends of a political leader are either legally or illegally given business advantages in return for their political support.
A condition in which many cultures coexist within a society and maintain their cultural differences.
A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Populist Political Party
Created by democrats and republicans who were tired of their party's reputation and lack of positive action to help the state
soft power initiatives
diplomatic overtures or offers of aid that appear to be only friendly with no ulterior geopolitical motives
a continuous, extended urban area formed by the growing together of several formerly separate, expanding cities
Campaign in China ordered by Mao Zedong to purge the Communist Party of his opponents and instill revolutionary values in the younger generation.
Migrants from the rural areas who have moved temporarily to the cities to find employment.
People's ability to access sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life.
an urban center with certain attributes that, if augmented by a measure of investment support, will stimulate regional economic development in its hinterland
the system pioneered in Japanese manufacturing that clusters companies that are part of the same production system close together so that they can deliver parts to each other precisely when they are needed
Rid Cambodia of influence
Confiscated all private property
Closed Schools, hospitals, factories
Abolished Banking, finance, currency
Relocation of Urban Dwellers
Khmer Rouge Social Engineering
Parents were compromised by capitalism so children were separated from parents
Children brainwashed in reeducation camps
Children considered the "doctoral instruments of the party"
Khmer Rouge Family Policy
Tuol Sleng Detention Centre (S-21)
Site of systematic torture
• Of the 17,000 passed through its gates between 1975 and 1979, only 12 survived.
Estimated death toll under Khmer Rouge
between 1.4 and 2.2 million (1/2 from starvation, 1/2 from execution)
Southeast Asia haze crisis
An air pollution crisis affecting several countries. Looks foggy all the time because the air quality is so bad.
China's One Child Policy
most families in China are allowed by law to have only one child
China's farm output ranking
#1 in farm output ($1 trillion)
Reasons for high agricultural import activity in Japan, S.korea, and Taiwan
Due to populations demands, they are heavily dependent on food imports.
China's economic trends for the last 30 years
Fastest growing economy, with 10% growth rates over last 30 years
4 major environmental issues facing the region.
desertification, soil erosion, deforestation, riverine and coastal pollution
City of Guiyu
Received the largest fraction of e waste per year.
El Niño Southern Oscillation, see-sawing of air pressure over the S. Pacific
A terrible famine in 1315-1322 that hit much of Europe after a period of climate change.
Treaty of Tientsin
This 1858 treaty opened 16 ports in China to US trade, including the 5 of the Treaty of Wanghsia, and granted Americans the right to travel and trade throughout China. This gave the fifty protestant missionaries throughout China legal clearance and created a country which would be the center of American missionaries for a century to come
What were 2 significant impacts of the global agriculture market in 19th century China ("Food Security")?
Tribute grains redirected to the global grain trade.
Cash crop begin to replace cereal crops.
(Farmers sell cash crops on global market and use profits to purchase grain)
a situation in which an economic gain by one country results in an economic loss by another
the outermost part or boundary
Accumulation by Dispossession
A process wherein wealth and power are centralized in the hands of the few by dispossessing individuals of their wealth or land
Rate of China's oil consumption/day
9.4 million bbl/day
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