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57 terms

Weather & Climate: Review

Science: Mr. Bettoncourt - Unit: Weather and Climate - Test: 1.14.11 for A/B/C/D. *NOTE: I added a few extra terms, just incase we need to know them.
STUDY
PLAY
Earth's atmosphere
the layer of gases that surrounds our planet
thermometer
an instrument used to measure temperature, consisting of a thin, glass tube with a bulb on one end that contains a liquid (usually mercury or alcohol)
barometer
an instrument that is used to measure changes in air pressure (2 kinds)
troposphere
where Earth's weather occurs (0 to 12 km)
stratosphere
the ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet radiation (12 to 50 km)
mesosphere
-90 degrees C, meteoroids burn up and produce meteor trails (50 to 80 km)
thermosphere
1,800 degrees C, very thin air and has no definite outer limit (above 80 km)
exosphere
the outer layer of the atmosphere, satellites are located here
ionosphere
the aurora borealis occurs here (80 to 550 km)
ozone layer
absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation in the stratosphere
greenhouse effect
the process by which gases in the atmosphere that trap heat
temperature
the average amount of energy of motion in the molecules of a substance
thermal energy
the total amount of energy of motion in the molecules of a substance
radiation
the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves (heat traveling to your hands from a campfire)
convection
the transfer of heat by movement of a fluid (drying boots over a hot air vent even though the furnace is in another room)
conduction
the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching (hot sand under cold feet)
wind
the horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure
local winds
winds that blow over short distance
global winds
winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
sea breeze
the flow of air from an ocean or lake to land
land breeze
the flow of air from land to a body of water
humidity
a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air
relative humidity
percentage of water vapor that is actually in the air compared to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at a particular temperature
how do clouds form
when water vapor in the air condenses to form liquid water or ice crystals
cumulonimbus clouds
form tornadoes and hurricanes when warm air is forced upward at a cold front
cirrus clouds
clouds that form at above about 6 kilometers where temperatures are very low and are therefore made of ice crystals
precipitation
any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface
evaporation
the process by which water molecules in liquid water escape into the air as water vapor
condensation
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
heating of the troposphere
convection currents happen when cold air is more dense than warm air
anemometer
an instrument used to measure wind speed
Coriolis effect
the way Earth's rotation makes winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right and winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left
polar air mass
cold air mass with low air pressure
tropical air mass
warm air mass with high air pressure
maritime air mass
air mass that forms over the oceans
continental air mass
air mass that forms over the continents
weather associated with low pressure
stormy and cloudy
cold front
when a rapidly moving cold air mass runs into a slowly moving warm air mass, and the denser colder air slides under the lighter warmer air
warm front
when a rapidly moving warm air mass collides with a slowly moving cold air mass, and the lighter warmer air moves over the denser colder air
hurricane
a tropical cyclone that has winds of 119 kilometers per hour or higher
tornado
a rapidly whirling, funnel-shaped cloud that reaches down from a storm cloud to touch Earth's surface
cyclone
a swirling center of low air pressure where winds spiral inwards, counterclockwise
meteorologist
a scientist that studies the causes of weather and tries to predict it
isobars
lines joining places on the map that have the same air pressure
isotherms
lines joining places on the map that have the same temperature
El Niño
an event that occurs every two to seven years in the Pacific Ocean, during which winds shift and push warm surface water toward the coast of South America, and that can cause dramatic climate changes
density
the amount of mass in a given volume of air
two factors that determine weather
precipitation and prevailing winds
winter
the south end of Earth's axis is tilted toward the sun, and the Southern Hemisphere receives more energy from the sun - it's winter in the Northern Hemisphere
fall
neither end of Earth's axis is tilted toward the sun, so both hemispheres receive the same amount of energy
spring
neither end of Earth's axis is tilted toward the sun, so both hemispheres receive the same amount of energy
summer
the north end of Earth's axis is tilted toward the sun, and the Northern Hemisphere receives more energy from the sun - it's summer in the Northern Hemisphere
seasons
the results of Earth's tilted axis - they change as the amount of energy each hemisphere receives from the sun changes
four factors that determine climate
latitude, altitude, distance from bodies of water, and ocean currents
Global warming
a gradual increase in the temperature of Earth's atmosphere
What are causes for different temperatures in different areas?
Latitude, altitude, distance from bodies of water and ocean currents affect the different temperature in different climates, and prevailing winds and the presence of mountains affect the precipitation in different climates.
Explain winds.
Winds are the horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure. There are two types of winds: local winds (blow over a small area) and global winds (blow over a larger area).