It was incorporated into Article I and the Tenth Amendment. Article I, section 8 of the Constitution limits the powers of the United States Congress by specifically listing powers delegated to the national government. Article I, section 9 specifically limits the powers of Congress, as do Amendments 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8. The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution reserves those powers not delegated to the federal government to the states.
Federalism was a demand for the founding fathers to ensure the avoidance of tyranny, to allow more participation in politics, & to use the states as "laboratories" for new ideas and programs.
10th amendment supports the concept of federalism the most.
French political philosopher whose major work, The Spirit of Laws, was a major contribution to political theory. Montesquieu argued that the best government would be one in which power was balanced among three groups of officials. Montesquieu called the idea of dividing government power into three branches the "separation of powers." He thought it most important to create separate branches of government with equal but different powers. That way, the government would avoid placing too much power with one individual or group of individuals. According to Montesquieu, each branch of government could limit the power of the other two branches. Therefore, no branch of the government could threaten the freedom of the people. His ideas about separation of powers became the basis for the United States Constitution. According to Montesquieu, there were three types of government: a monarchy (ruled by a king or queen), a republic (ruled by an elected leader), and a despotism (ruled by a dictator). Montesquieu believed that a government that was elected by the people was the best form of government. He did, however, believe that the success of a democracy - a government in which the people have the power - depended upon maintaining the right balance of power. The term "domestic policy" refers to the plans and actions taken by a national government to deal with issues and needs present within the country itself.
Domestic policy is generally developed by the federal government, often in consultation with state and local governments. The process of dealing with U.S. relations and issues with other nations is known as "foreign policy."
In the United States, domestic policy can be divided into several different categories, each concentrated on a different aspect of life in the U.S.
Regulatory Policy - focuses on maintaining social order by outlawing behaviors and actions that endanger the public. This is typically accomplished by enacting laws and policies banning individuals, companies, and other parties from taking actions that might endanger social order.
Distributive Policy - focuses on ensuring the fair provisions of taxpayer-supported government benefits, goods, and services to all individuals, groups, and corporations. Ex: public education, public safety, roads and bridges, and welfare programs.
Redistributive Policy - focuses on one of the most difficult and controversial aspects of domestic policy: the equitable sharing of the nation's wealth. The goal of redistributive policy is to fairly transfer funds raised through taxation from one group or program to another.
Constituent Policy - focuses on creating government agencies to help provide services to the public. Over the years, for example, new agencies and departments have been created to deal with taxes, to administer programs like Social Security and Medicare.
chief of state: Chief of state refers to the President as the head of the government. He is the symbol of all the people. In the United States, the President also rules over the government. In many countries, the chief of state reigns over government but does not rule. Examples of this can be found in England, Denmark, Japan, Italy, and Germany. 2) chief executive: The President is also chief executive, vested by the Constitution with broad executive powers. This power is used at home on domestic issues and also extends to foreign affairs. The executive power is limited, however, by our government's system of checks and balances. (3)chief administrator: As chief administrator, the President is in charge of the executive branch of the federal government. This branch employs more than 2.7 million civilians.4) chief diplomat: The President is also the nation's chief diplomat, the main author of American foreign policy. Everything the President says and does is closely followed, both at home and in other countries. (5) commander in chief: In addition, the Constitution makes the President the commander in chief of the armed forces. This power gives the President direct and immediate control of the military. 6) chief legislator: As chief legislator, the President shapes public policy. The President may suggest, request, and insist that Congress enact laws he believes are needed. Sometimes, Congress does not agree with the President and decides against legislation. Working with Congress takes up a major part of the President's time.7) party chief, and (8) chief citizen. Chief of state refers to the President as the head of the government. He is the symbol of all the people. The Appointments Clause gives the executive branch and the President, not Congress, the power to appoint federal officials. The President has the power to appoint federal judges, ambassadors, and other "principal officers" of the United States, subject to Senate confirmation of such appointments. "Principal officers" here includes ambassadors and Members of the Cabinet. Although the Senate may opt not to confirm a Presidential appointment, Congress cannot limit or eliminate the President's powers to make the appointments.
The power to appoint "inferior Officers" mentioned in Article II vests in the President only by Congressional approval. While Congress cannot itself exercise the power to make such appointments, Congress may vest this power in the judiciary or in Cabinet officials.
Along with the power to appoint comes the power to remove. Except where statutorily limited, the President may remove any executive branch officer. Congress cannot prevent removal entirely, but may limit removal by requiring a showing of good cause, provided the office from which the person is being fired is one where some measure of independence from the President is desirable.
The Electoral College is a process, not a place. The founding fathers established it in the Constitution as a compromise between election of the President by a vote in Congress and election of the President by a popular vote of qualified citizens.
The Electoral College process consists of the selection of the electors, the meeting of the electors where they vote for President and Vice President, and the counting of the electoral votes by Congress.
The Electoral College consists of 538 electors. A majority of 270 electoral votes is required to elect the President. Your state's entitled allotment of electors equals the number of members in its Congressional delegation: one for each member in the House of Representatives plus two for your Senators. Read more about the allocation of electoral votes.
Under the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution, the District of Columbia is allocated 3 electors and treated like a state for purposes of the Electoral College. For this reason, in the following discussion, the word "state" also refers to the District of Columbia.
Each candidate running for President in your state has his or her own group of electors. The electors are generally chosen by the candidate's political party, but state laws vary on how the electors are selected and what their responsibilities are. Read more about the qualifications of the Electors and restrictions on who the Electors may vote for.
The presidential election is held every four years on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. You help choose your state's electors when you vote for President because when you vote for your candidate you are actually voting for your candidate's electors.
Most states have a "winner-take-all" system that awards all electors to the winning presidential candidate. However, Maine and Nebraska each have a variation of "proportional representation." Read more about the allocation of Electors among the states and try to predict the outcome of the Electoral College vote.
After the presidential election, your governor prepares a "Certificate of Ascertainment" listing all of the candidates who ran for President in your state along with the names of their respective electors. The Certificate of Ascertainment also declares the winning presidential candidate in your state and shows which electors will represent your state at the meeting of the electors in December of the election year. Your stateÂ's Certificates of Ascertainments are sent to the Congress and the National Archives as part of the official records of the presidential election. See the key dates for the 2016 election and information about the roles and responsibilities of state officials, the Office of the Federal Register and the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), and the Congress in the Electoral College process.
The meeting of the electors takes place on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December after the presidential election. The electors meet in their respective states, where they cast their votes for President and Vice President on separate ballots. Your state's electors' votes are recorded on a "Certificate of Vote," which is prepared at the meeting by the electors. Your state's Certificates of Votes are sent to the Congress and the National Archives as part of the official records of the presidential election. See the key dates for the 2016 election and information about the roles and responsibilities of state officials and the Congress in the Electoral College process.
Each state's electoral votes are counted in a joint session of Congress on the 6th of January in the year following the meeting of the electors. Members of the House and Senate meet in the House chamber to conduct the official tally of electoral votes. See the key dates for the 2016 election and information about the role and responsibilities of Congress in the Electoral College process.
The Vice President, as President of the Senate, presides over the count and announces the results of the vote. The President of the Senate then declares which persons, if any, have been elected President and Vice President of the United States.
The President-Elect takes the oath of office and is sworn in as President of the United States on January 20th in the year following the Presidential election.
Roles and Responsibilities in the Electoral College Process
The Office of the Federal Register coordinates the functions of the Electoral College on behalf of the Archivist of the United States, the States, the Congress, and the American People. The Office of the Federal Register operates as an intermediary between the governors and secretaries of state of the States and the Congress. It also acts as a trusted agent of the Congress in the sense that it is responsible for reviewing the legal sufficiency of the certificates before the House and Senate accept them as evidence of official State action
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy
Daniel M. Shea
Donald A. Ritchie, Richard C. Remy