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Joint Commision (JayCo)

An agency that inspects and accredits heath care providers.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

federal agency that makes and enforces regulations to protect workers.

Magnet Program for Excellence in Nursing Services

a voluntary program that recognize hospitals for nursing excellance.

Health Maintenance Program (HMO)

a group of health care providers and hospitals paid by an insurance company. HMO members must see only certain doctors and go only to designated hospitals, except in emergencies.

Quality Assurance (QA)

Purpose of QA is to conduct personal interviews and identify problems and find ways to improve.

Interdisciplinary heatlh care team

Team includes patient, members of the patients family, the physician, the nursing team, and other specialists trained to meet patients needs.

Nursing Team

Consists of registed nurses, licensed practical nurses, and nursing assistants.

Nursing Assistant

Assists with the care of patients under the supervision of either an RN or an LPN.

Registered Nurse (RN)

Becomes registered by passing NCLEX. as a four year baccalauret degree or a associate in applied science at a community college or technical school.

Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN)

LPN has generally completed a 1 year to 18 month training program and has passed a national licencure examination administered by the state.

Nursing care is commonly organized in one of these several ways:

Primary nursing, Functional nursing, Team nursing, and Partners in practice. (Nursing assistant has functional role in each.

Omnibus Budget Reconcilation Act (OBRA)

A federal law passed in 1987 that regulates the education and certification of nurse aides. OBRA established the minimum requirements for nurse aide competency evalation programs.

Nurse Aide Competency Evaluation Program (NACEP)

A guide for individual programs that register and award credentials to nursing assistants.

Scope of Practice

the skills the nursing assistant is legally permitted to perform by state regulations and facilitiy policies.

Role of N/A?

Works directly with patient, giving physical care and emotional support. this care is always under the direction of the licensed nurse.

Interpersonal relationships

Interactions between people. Important as a N/A to be able to be able to creat good relationships with patients as well as cowokers.

What is the most important characteristic that you must bring to the job?



Total mental, emotional, and sometimes physical exhausion.

Residents Rights

Document that spells out the rights of residents recieving care in long-term care facilities.

Patients Bill Of Rights

Document developed by the American Hospital Association that describes the basic rights to which each patient is entitled.

Clients Rights

Document spelling out rights of persons recieving home health care.

Informed Consent

When the consumer gives permission for care or procedures after full disclosure of the purpose of the care or procedure, the benefits, and risks involved.

advance directives

Documents that give instructions about the consumers wishes for treatment if the consumer is terminally ill or unable to communicate. (Ex. DNR order)


Consumer files complaint.

What are the two sets of rules that will govern the moral and legal actions of N/A?

1) Ethical Standards 2) Legal Standards

Ethical Standards

Guides to moral behavior.

Legal Standards

Guides to lawful behavior.


legally responsible.

What is one of the most basic rules of ethics?

Life is precious.

What is the major responsibility of medicine and those working in healthcare?

Maintain quality of life and make comfortable those whose lives are limited .

Platinum Rule

Treat Others The Way They Want to Be Treated.


The failure to exercise the degree of care considered reasonable under the circumstances, when that failure results in a unintended injury to a patient. (Carelessness).


Taking anything that does not belong to you makes you guilty of theft.

Aiding and Abetting

Seeing someone steal and not reporting it.


Making false statements about someone to a third person and the character of the first person is injured. This is true if you make statement in writing (libel) or verbally (slander).

False Imprisonment

Restraining a persons movement or actions without proper authorization constitutes unlawful or false imprisonment.


Intentionally attempting to touch the body of a person or even threatening to do so.


Actually touching a person without that persons permission.

Informed Consent

Paient must know and agree to what we plan to do before we start.


Defined as an act or failure to act that is nonaccidental and causes or could cause harm or death to patient.

Types of Abuse

Verbal abuse, sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, involuntary seclusion.

Involuntary Seclusion

The separation of a patient from others against the patients will.


Failure to provide the necessary services of care to avoid physical harm, mental anguish, or mental illness. It can be deliberate or accidental.


Protecting client information. To do otherwise is invasion of privacy.

Sexual Harassent

Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.


activities of daily living


cerbrovascular accident


chronic obstructive pulmonary disease


congestive heart failure


nothing by mouth


do not resuscitate

Hepatitis A

Found in the feces of people with hepatitis A and is spread by close personal contact (including sex or sharing a household). It can also be spread by eating food or drinking water contaminated with Hep. A.

Hepatitis B

Found in blood and certain body fluids. It is spread when blood or body fluid from an infected person enters the body of a person who is not immune. HBV spread through sharing needles, unprotected sex, needlestick or sharp exposures on the job, infected mother to baby.

Hepatitis C

Found in blood and certain body fluids. It is spread when blood or body fluids from an infected person enters another person's body. HCV is spread sharing needles, through needlesticks or sharps exposures on the job, infected mother to baby, and sometimes during sex (not common).


closer to the midline


Farther away from the midline.


Towared upper part of body


Toward lower part of body.

Anterior (Ventral)

Toward the Front

Posterior (Dorsal)

Toward the Back.


Nearest the point of attachment


Farthest from the point of attachment.

Epithelial Cells

Very close together, form protective coverings and sometimes produce body fluids.

Nerve Cells

Carry electrical messages to and fromthe different parts of the body, coordinating activities and making us aware of changes in the environment.

Muscle Cells

Special in their ability to shorten or lenhthen, changing their shape and position of parts to which they are attached.

Connective Tissue Cells

Present throughout the body in different types. They support and connect body parts.

Epithelial Tissue

Specialized in its ability to absorb, secrete (produce) fluids, excrete (eliminate) waste products, and protect.

Nervous Tissue

Forms the brain and spinal cord and the nerves throughout the body.

What are the 3 kinds of muscle tissue?

Skeletal (voluntary) muscle, Cardiac Muscle, and Smooth (Involuntary) muscle.

Connective Tissue

Forms blood, bone, and fibrous and elastic tissues to hold the skin on the body, attach muscles to bones, and support delicate cells throughout the body.


Sheets of epithelial tissues supported by connective tissues. Membranes cover the body, line body cavities, and produce some body fluids.

Types of membranes

Mucus membranes, synovial membranes, serous membranes, pericardium, pleura, meninges, peritoneum, and cutaneous membrane.


Spaces within body that contain organs.

What is Long Term Care Ombudsman?

Long Term Care Ombudsman works to advance the rights of consumers of long term care services. Ombudsman work in cooperation with providers of long term care services and agencies to correct any violation.

What assistance does The Ombudsman provide?

Investigates and resolves complaints involving care and treatment, residents rights violations, guardianship, financial issues, and home care services.

Vaccines Adults Should Get

Influenza "flu shot", Pneumocoocal "pneumoccal shot", Tetanus "Td or Tetanus shot", Hep. A, Hep. B., Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), Varicella (Var), Lyme Disease (Lyme), Meningococcal.

Patient Care Plan

"Working Tool." Nursing plan created by whole nursing team. This is a guideline progressing to an eventual positve result.

Medical Chart

Running chronological account of what has been done to patient since entry. This is a "Legal Document." No white out, no wrong spelling, write one line through error and put name by it.


The patient cannot understand spoken or wirtten language, or cannot express spoken or written language, or both.

Receptive Aphasia

Can still form language but cannot understand when spoken to.

Expressive Aphasia

Can understand when spoken to but cannot verbally respond.

Global Aphasia

Cannot understand or vocalize language (late stage alzeimers).

The Five Steps Of The Nursing Process

1) Assessment 2) Problem identification 3) Planning 4) Implementation 5) Evaluation


Information obtained by using ones senses (seeing, hearing, smelling , or feeling).

Two Types of Observations

1) Objective 2) Subjective (statement or complaint made by patient).

General signs and symptoms that need to be reported to nurse:

Chest pain, Shortness of breath, Difficulty Breathing, Weakness or dizziness, Headache, Pain, Nausea or vomiting, Diarrhea, Cough, Cyanosis or change in color, Change in mental status, Excessive thirst, Lethargy, Unusual drainage from a wound or body cavity, Change in vital signs, profuse sweating.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountablility Act (HIPPA).

Congress passed this law in 1996. Applies to privacy, confidentiatliy, and medical records.


The absence of disease-producing microrganisms. Two ways to achieve: 1) Medical Aseptic Technique 2) Surgical Aseptic Technique

Medical Asepsis

Refers to medical practices that reduce the #'s of microrganisms or interrupt transmission from one person to another person to place or object.

Nosocomial Infection

Hospital acquired infection.


Anything that has come into contact and is contaminated with infectious material.


Process of eliminating harmful pathogens from equipment and instruments.


Removes all microrganisms from an item.


Invasion and multiplication of any organism and the damage this causes in the body. 3 Types: 1) Local 2) Generalized 3) Systemic


1) Bacteria 2) Fungi (yeasts & molds) 3) Viruses (smallest) 4) Protozoa (one celled organism)


Micro = small organisms. 1) Pathogens (disease producing organsim) 2) Non-Pathogen (non-disease producing organsim)

Chain of Infection

The conditions infections occur.

Human Reservoirs

1) Cases: people with acute illness including obvious signs & symptoms (ex. chickenpox). 2) Carriers: Persons infected who can give disease to others.


Airborne, Droplet, and Contact.

Local Infection

Confined to one area.

Generalized Infection

Such as pneumonia.

Systemic Infection

Widespread through bloodstream. Example is Sepsis. Sepsis is the presence of pus forming and other pathogens or their toxins in the blood.

Why are we the perfect hosts for pathogens?

They like warm, moist, dark areas that are oxygen rich.


Occurs when the body's immune system is inadequate and fails to respond to the challange of infectious disease organisms that it normally would fight successfully. (Factors ex. that can lead to this: old age, frailty, chemotherapy, HIV, etc.)

Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccus aureus (MRSA)

"Super bug" found on the skin and mucous membranes.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)

"Super bug" found in the gastrointestinal tract.


Single mosti mportant health procedure any individual can perform to prevent the spread of microbes. You should handwash before and after everything you do when working.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Gloves, gown, mask, and googles or face shield. Standard precautions stress handwashing and PPE.


R = REMOVE Patients , A = Sound ALARM, C = CONTAIN Fire, E = EXTINGUISH Fire or EVACUATE.


How to use a fire extinguisher: P= PULL the pin, A = AIM the nozzle at the base of the fire, S = SQUEEZE the handle, S = SWEEP back and forth along the base of the fire.

Residents Unit

All of the room space, funiture, and equipment provided by the facility for the resident.

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