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Terms in this set (50)
Which of the following adaptations allows plants to maintain a relatively stable
water content during prolonged drought?
Which of the following would represent a particularly "safe" vessel in a plant
water transport system??
A particularly narrow veesel
Which of the following best describes what a "glass cytoplasm" is and what types
of plants it can be found in?
This is a sticky cytoplasm (lots of sugar) found in resurrection plants
Which of the following best describes how water moves in plants?
Water is pulled up the stem due to a water potential gradient between the roots (high water potential) to the leaves (low water potential)
In the desert southwest a Larrea bush may commonly maintain a water potential
of -5.0 MPa, which is far below the normal wilting point for plants (-1.5 MPa). Yet
the plants are healthy and produce ample seed (good fitness). Which type of
adaptation to drought does this represent?
Drought tolerance with low water potential
Which of the following is most likely to reduce the leaf temperature of a leaf
exposed to high radiation?
Having a vertical orientation
What is the most probable significance for dead leaf hairs on the top of leaves for
plants that inhabit desert environments?
The leaf hairs reduce leaf absorptivity of radiation
Leaves on plants adapted to high light environments can make use of a higher
intensity of radiation for photosynthesis than plants adapted to a shade
environment. Which of the following metrics from a light response curve most
represents this difference?
Light saturation point
Plants can lose energy to the environment by the process of water transpiration.
What part of the leaf energy budget does this represent?
Latent heat exchange
Plants in very high light environments usually have lots of carotinoids such as
xanthophyll. To what advantage for a plant in very high light is a large amount of
Carotinoids are involved in nonphotochemical energy loss as heat
Why is photorespiration by rubisco important for plants under high light and
drought (i.e. when stomata are closed)?
Photorespiration helps use up photon energy when CO2 is low and there is excess energy absorbed
Which of the following is likely to lead to a cooler leaf temperature under
conditions of high light intensity?
A high transpiration rate
If the leaves of a plant are entire (no lobes or divisions) large and are glabrous
(no hairs) then this plant is most likely adapted to ________________?
a low light environment
What types of plants are likely to have compound and pinnate (lots of little
Plants in high light and hot environments
Which of the following is the best reason why leaves of Rhododendron species in
cold temperate habitats move their leaves to a more pendant position (hanging
straight down) during the winter?
So leaves can escape high radiation when metabolism is slowed by cold
Which of the following is the best definition for the "Light compensation point"
in a light response curve for plant leaves?
The amount of light that causes photosynthesis to equal respiration
If a plant has a relatively low light compensation point and a somewhat higher quantum yield then this plant can be considered_________.
a low light adapted plant
Plants adapted to shady habitats like the understory of a forest would have
which of the following adaptations?
A low chlorophyll content per leaf area
Which of the following is the best way to describe a plant that has high
capacitance in the stems?
Has succulent stems
Which of the following best defines what vessel embolism means in plant
This is because a bubble of air has blocked the flow of water in the vessel
Organisms that spend a large majority of their time searching for food and
spend most of their energy competing for the food once they find it are best
described as _________.
Which of the following organism classes has the lowest production efficiency?
Which of the following best defines a guild of animals?
All animals that acquire food by the same technique (like all grazers in Africa)
Which of the following organisms is most likely to have the highest metabolic
Shrew weighing 0.1 kg
Which of the following groups is most likely to have the lowest assimilation
According to Bergmann's rule, as global temperature increases,
large mammals in northern climates will become smaller
If an animal is characterized by having a relatively simple digestive system,
small canines, incisors present and molars present then this organism is likely a (an)
What is a key advantage for animals that conform their metabolism or internal
homeostasis to the habitat variations?
There would be a relatively low energy use
If an organism has an elaborate digestive system with several chambers and
consumes a lot of food then this organism is likely a ____________.
Which of the following is a likely adaptation of a granivore?
A tough jaw for crushing food
How is a homeotherm best defined?
An organism that is able to maintain a constant internal temperature
What is the most likely way that a poikilotherm organism will manage its
It will use external heat sources such as sunlight to manage its temperature
If one measures the size of ears for fox in the arctic they will be smaller (relative
to body size) than fox in the tropics. Which rule defines this relationship?
If an organism goes into a state defined by a low metabolic rate and it not able to
be aroused for an entire dry and hot season, then this is a case of?
What is the relative energy cost for using ectothermic processes to manage an
organism internal temperature compared with using endothermic processes?
Ectothermic has a lower energy cost than endothermic
In what way can water be conserved during breathing in animals?
Cooling nasal passages to cause condensation of water in expelled air
How is the heart rate expected to change in animal systems as the average
survivorship increases (live for more years)?
Resting heart beat rate decreases as survivorship increases
Allen's rule for animal adaptation to climate is best described as
appendages like ears are longer for populations of a species in a warm climate compared to populations in a cold climate
Which of the following factors scales best (is most correlated with) basal
metabolic rate in animals?
Body size (mass) of the organism
What proportion of the biomass (energy) in one tier of the food web is
transferred to the next tier (for example from producers to herbivores)?
Which of the following best describes the comparison of the surface/volume
(S/V) ratio for the two organisms?
Moose have a lower S/V than mice
What is the best reason for having lungs with a very large wet surface area?
In order to accumulate enough oxygen for aerobic respiration of cells
What is the correct relationship between heart rate (beats per second) and body
size in mammals?
Heart rate decreases with increase in body size
Which of the following organisms is likely to have the shortest longevity
(youngest age at death)?
A shrew with a fast growth rate and a high surface/volume ratio
What was "Harper's" comment about the nature of population ecology?
Population ecology is a science of numbers
The Lincoln-Peterson equation is used for what purpose in population ecology?
For calculating population size
Which of the following best describes the fundamental characteristic of the
Population size in the future = population size now plus (population size now times birth-death rates)
Which of the following is a possible reason for a regular distribution of
individuals in a population?
Strong territories for individuals
Which of the following functions describes how a population size changes over
time if it follows the "Malthus equation"?
An exponential increase in population size
An ecologist counts the number of individuals in five samples of equal area for
each of four species (A-D). Which of these counts best represents a clumped
0, 11, 93, 0, 0
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