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Periodic Table of Elements
Chs. 12 & 13
Terms in this set (65)
How is the Periodic Law connected to the Periodic Table?
The Law states that the repeating properties of elements change at regular intervals which is found in the organization of the Periodic Table.
How are the classifications found on the Periodic Table?
Metals are to the left; nonmetals to the right; metalloids are in between.
What is different between a row and a column of the Periodic Table?
Rows of elements follow a repeating pattern while columns of elements share similar properties.
Which group is most reactive and why?
Alkali metals are most reactive because they readily give away the 1 valence electron to create cations with a charge +1.
Why are pure alkali metals stored in oil?
They are highly reactive with other elements, so they are stored in oil to remain stable.
Why do alkaline-earth metals form doubly charged positive ions?
Since they willingly give away the 2 valence electrons, there are 2 protons without electrons to balance the positive charge.
What atomic particle determines the atom's identity?
The proton- the atomic number determines the identity of the atom.
On which atomic particle is the organization of the Periodic Table based?
Protons- the elements are listed in order of the atomic number.
How can scientists tell that it is the number of protons and not the number of electrons that determines an atom's identity?
If atoms lose, gain, or share electrons, the identity of the atom does not change, only the charge. If the number of protons changes, it becomes a different element.
Why are Groups 3-12 called "Transition Metals?"
The properties vary wildly and the elements begin changing their properties from the metals on the left to the properties of the nonmetals on the right of the table.
Which group reacts with Halogen group to produce salts?
Group 2- Alkaline Earth Metals
Why are lanthanides and actinides placed at the bottom of the Periodic Table?
to keep the Periodic Table from being too long
What properties are unique to Transition Metals?
high densities and high melting and boiling points
What property is unique to Boron Group?
most elements show increasing reactivity as elements get heavier
Why was aluminum once more valuable than gold?
Aluminum was expensive because it was difficult to extract aluminum from the earth.
How does the Group Number tell the number of valence electrons for groups higher than 12?
The number in the ones place value tells how many valence electrons an element has.
What property is unique to the Carbon Group?
The elements share their electrons but the tendency to lose electrons increases as the size of the atom increases.
Which element makes up 80% of Earth's air?
Why do elements in the Carbon Group tend to share their valence electrons?
Since the elements in the Carbon Group have 4 valence electrons, the outer shell is exactly half-way filled.
What property is unique to the Oxygen Group?
The lighter two elements (oxygen and sulfur) are vital to life, but the heavier elements are toxic (poisonous).
Which two groups do not contain metals?
Halogens and Nobel Gases- Groups 17 & 18
Why are halogens very reactive?
Because the atoms have 7 valence electrons and only need 1 electron to fill the outer shell, halogens are very reactive.
Why is group 17 named the halogens?
The halogen elements react with metals to produce different salts.
Why are Nobel Gases unreactive?
Nobel gases are unreactive gases due to a filled outer energy level.
Why is hydrogen not in a specific group?
Since hydrogen's properties are unique, it is set apart from other elements.
What makes hydrogen so unique?
Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe and it only has 1 proton and 1 electron in its stable form.
Why is hydrogen associated with Group 1?
Hydrogen has 1 valence electron and it will give away the electron when combining with other elements, which is a property of Group 1 elements, so it is found on the Periodic Table above Group 1.
What is used to create substances?
Atoms of elements
What is a chemical bonding?
The joining of atoms to form new substances
What is a chemical bond?
the force that holds two atoms together
How is chemical bonding different than a chemical bond?
Bonding is the action of creating new substance while a bond is the connection between the atoms.
What can be used to see chemical bonds?
Since atoms and the bonds between them are too small to see, models must be used.
How can the number of electrons be determined in an atom?
From the atomic number = the number of protons
What energy level is filled first?
the level closest to the nucleus
How is the 1st energy level different from the 2nd energy level?
The first energy level can only hold 2 electrons while the second energy level can hold up to 8 electrons.
Why do valence electrons determine the atoms ability to form bonds?
It is only the valence electrons that are gained, lost, or shared in a chemical bond.
How can the number of valence electrons be determined by looking at the Periodic Table?
Elements in Groups 1 & 2 have 1 or 2 valence electrons respectively. Elements in Groups 13-18 have the same number of valence electrons as the digit in the group number's ones place.
Why do Group 18 elements usually not form bonds?
The outermost energy level is full.
How many electrons are needed to fill helium's outermost energy level? Explain.
Since helium only has 2 electrons, these 2 fill the first energy level, which can only contain 2 electrons.
Explain how to draw a model of an atom.
First determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons from the atomic number and atomic mass. The number of protons = atomic number. The number of neutrons = the atomic mass - the atomic number. The number of electrons = the number of protons. Draw the nucleus containing all of the protons and neutrons. Draw enough energy levels to place the total number of electrons in (1st holds 2 electrons, 2nd and 3rd hold 8 electron).
What is an ionic bond?
An ionic bond is a chemical bond formed with electrons are transferred to another atom.
Why do atoms create ionic bonds?
Bonds are created to fill the outer energy levels of an atom.
What is an ion?
An ion is an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.
How are positive ions formed?
Positive ions form when an atom loses electrons.
What is needed to form positive ions?
A small amount of energy is needed for an atom to lose electrons.
What happens to an atom if it gains electrons?
The atom becomes a negative ion.
What is released when a negative ion is formed?
When a negative ion is formed, the amount of energy released is based on the ease of gaining the electron.
Why are metals most likely to form positive ions.
Metals are most likely to form positive ions because they have few valence electrons which makes it easier to give them away.
Why are nonmetals most likely to form negative ions?
Nonmetals are most likely to form negative ions because the outer energy level is almost full and is easy to gain a few electrons.
When will an ionic bond form between a metal and a nonmetal?
An ionic bond will form if a nonmetal releases more energy than is needed to take electrons from the metal.
Why is the overall charge of an ionic compound 0 (neutral)?
Since the positive charge of the metal is the same as the negative charge of the nonmetal, the ionic compound has an overall charge of 0.
What is the ionic symbol for [calcium (Na)]?
What is the ionic symbol for [oxygen (O)]?
What is the name of the ionic compound made of [beryllium and chlorine]?
What is a covalent bond?
A chemical bond formed when two or atoms share electrons.
Explain how a covalent bond is different from an ionic bond.
A covalent bond is created between nonmetals when they share a pair of electrons. An ionic bond is by transferring electrons from the metal atom to a nonmetal atom.
Why do nonmetals form covalent bonds?
Nonmetals form covalent bonds because they require large amounts of energy to lose electrons, so they share them instead.
What is a molecule?
A molecule is two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
How is a molecule similar to an atom?
A molecule is the smallest particle of a compound that retains its identity just like an atom is the smallest unit of an element that retains its identity.
Use a dot-diagram to represent an atom of [nitrogen (N)].
The dot-diagram would have a capital N with 5 dots around it since nitrogen has 5 valence electrons.
What is a diatomic molecule?
A diatomic molecule is a molecule that contains two atoms
What is a metallic bond?
a bond formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them
Why do metals conduct electricity?
Electrons in metals are free to move since they are not connected to any 1 atom, allowing electricity to flow through the metal.
How are ductility and malleability different?
Ductility refers to a metal's ability to be made into a wire while malleability refers to a metal's ability to be hammered into a sheet.
How does a metal bend without breaking?
Electrons constantly move around and between metal ions to maintain the bonds regardless of the shape.
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