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NEU 200 Final (BIO, PSY, PHL)
Terms in this set (34)
Identify areas of the brain responsible for the aphasias
Brocha's and Wernicke's
Describe the components and corresponding brain areas of Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia
Wernicke's aphasia: comprehension deficit, production of meaningless speech, difficulty with recognition of spoken words, pure word deafness, "I can hear you talking, I just can't understand what you're saying", difficulty comprehending spoken words, transcortical sensory aphasia, they can repeat what others say to them, difficulty converting thoughts into words. On the temporal lobe, associated with word recognition
Broca's: between frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, associated with word production.
Describe the right hemisphere analogues to Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia
Motor Aprosodia-corresponds with Broca's area, creates monotone speech
Sensory Aprosodia-corresponds with Wernicke's area, unable to detect inflection in others speech
Describe the Wernicke-Geschwind model of language
Responding to a heard question: Primary auditory cortex, Wernicke's area, Arcuate fasciculus, Broca's area, then to Primary motor cortex
Reading aloud: Primary visual cortex, Angular gyrus, Wernicke's area, Arcuate fasciculus
Broca's area, then Primary motor cortex
Identify the three memory systems according to the Atkinson and Shiffrin model
sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
Discuss the subjective, clinical and empirical evidence to support the A&S model
subjective-Memory seems to have an active and an inactive component
Clinical-Amnesias can be "explained" via two memory systems and a transfer process
Describe relational learning and its relationship to the hippocampus
Think about H.M and how when his hippocampus was removed he developed anterograde amnesia. Meaning he was "learning" new things after the surgery but he was unable to then retain anything.
What were our final conclusions about the role of the hippocampus in memory?
It is not a storage box for memory, but it is used in the function of consolidating memory and acquiring new knowledge
Discuss the evidence from anterograde amnesiacs that poses problems for the A&S model
H.M, he had no new learning for 40+ years after his hippocampus was removed. The video we watched where the conductor would write over and over again that it was his first time ever being conscious. But he would be able to preform tasks that would require him to have previous knowledge even though he reports never learning it before.
Delineate between implicit and explicit memory, and describe the typical performance characteristics of an anterograde amnesiac
Explicit memory, being able to recall the learning. Implicit is not knowing where the knowledge came from but having it. Think the fish drawing day after day. The amnesiac will be able to tell its a fish sooner and sooner
Given the above mapping, discuss the performance of a split-brain subject in naming objects presented to the left and right visual fields
In a split brain patient, if the object is in the left visual field they would be able to say what the object is, but when asked not be able to pull said object out of a bad or identify it. Right hemisphere is mute and therefore cannot discern or verbally say what is being presented in the right visual field
Understand what happens in gastrulation
Occurs 12-16 days after fertilization. Gives us a glimpse of what will be the nervous system. Creation of the 3 germ layers that will eventually underlay all other formation
List the 3 germ layers and know which one differentiates into the nervous system
Ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. The ectoderm underlies all neural devleopment
Describe the events of neurulation and the ultimate result
Differentiation of ectoderm that produces brain and SC precursors. Formation of the neural tube
Know the main brain regions and how these (and the ventricles and eyes) develop from the neural tube
medulla, pons, cerebellum, cerebrum, and midbrain. These all form from the anterior neural tube subdividing into distinct brain regions. The lumen of the neural tube will become ventricles and central canal
Developing neural tube is likely organized into neuromeres (segments) with expression of different genes
Explain how segmentation (neuromeres) could underlie differentiation of the brain and spinal cord in development
Hox gene expression guides this segmentation. Hox genes code for DNA binding proteins that modulate expression of other genes that mediate morphogenesis. BUT Hox genes are not found in midbrain or forebrain of humans, so another set of genes likely underlies this part!
Explain neural induction and how this process results in "identity" to cells and regions, including the specific signals discussed in class
establishing neural stem cells (and thus the NS), occurs because of signaling from neighboring tissues. The signals are BMPs and Shh (Sonic Hedge Hog). These signals induce gene expression, cause changes in cell shape, cause cells to move, therefore creating an identity.
Describe how neural precursor cells in the ventricular zone become neurons and glia
As cells become postmitotic, they leave the ventricular zone and migrate to their final positions in the developing brain
Explain how neuroblasts migrate from where they are produced to their final location
Radial glia span the space between the ventricle and the brain surface, they then provide a sccafold for migrating neuroblasts to move on.
Describe how neuroblasts become more specialized as they become mature neurons and how the cytoskeleton underlies these changes.
The neuroblast establishes polarity, Outgrowth of neural processes, One of the neurites elongates becomes the axon, while the others will become dendrites. Actin is found on the distal ends of processes - important for directing growth, particularly for axons finding targets!
Describe the anatomy of a growth cone and explain how can be dynamic and changing, including involvement of cytoskeletal elements, signaling, proteins and cues, and trophic support.
Actin is found on the distal ends of processes - important for directing growth, particularly for axons finding targets! Growth cones show rapid changes in Ca2+ , which acts as an intracellular signal mediating actin and microtubule dynamics. Tubulin makes up the MTs, which will elongate the axon. Note the calcium channels, which open in response to environmental and intracellular cues (repulsive and attractive)
Explain how a growth cone finds an appropriate target and the steps of synaptogenesis
Growth cone becomes and "immature' synaptic terminal and looks for postsynaptic characteristics which are found in appropriate partners (recognition phase). Chemical synapses are formed through physical contact and cell adhesion molecules (adhesion phase). Further development of the machinery used for synapse (induction phase).
Describe how the target of a neuron is important for neuron survival.
Matches connectivity to need. Provides trophic support to neurons. Promotes neuron survival.
Explain the role of nerve growth factor and how it works
It is affected by trophic factors which promote neuron survival, help form and maintain appropriate connections, and promote growth of processes (dendrite/axon) to support connections. NGFs can act locally without affecting the cell bodies. Occurs through stimulating calcium release.
Explain what happens to basic neuron circuitry after birth (as in through the first few years of life and then afterward).
Myelination occurs from before birth to adulthood. Synaptogenesis occurs from before birth to adolescence. Apoptosis (death of cells) occurs from before birth until adolescence. Some neuronal proliferation and neural migration occurs after birth.
Explain what is meant by "cells that fire together, wire together"
Activity influences connections. One cell releases a chemical (neurotransmitter) and the next cell absorbs the chemical.
Describe how myelination occurs and the cells that are involved (CNS and PNS)
The myelin sheath is a plasma membrane extension that is laid down in regularly spaced segments along axons of the nervous system. In the CNS the membrane of the oligodendrocyte process wraps around the the axon and compacts the layers of the membrane. In the PNS the Schwans cells are involved.
Explain the types of short term synaptic plasticity, how they occur, and what the result is
Synaptic facilitation: increase in synaptic strength due to 2 APs in the presynaptic terminal in a short time (increases calcium in the presynaptic cell which greater response in postsynaptic cell).
Synaptic depression: decrease in synaptic strength due to sustained synaptic activity.
Explain LTP and LTD, how they occur, and what the result is.
LTP (long-term potentiation) is a long lasting increase in synaptic strength, achieved by increasing number of receptors present in postsynaptic cell. Causes an increase in size both pre- and post-synaptically. LTD (long-term depression) happens when the number of receptors is decreased.
Provide potential mechanisms for LTP and LTD.
LTP=Learning and memory. Long term plasticity,One method is increasing the number of receptors present on the postsynaptic cell!
LTD=One method is decreasing the number of receptors present on the postsynaptic cell
present the strongest case you can against the plausibility of scientifically-informed thinker holding a dualist account of the mind.
The easiest argument that I can think of comes from Kant. It is called the many minds argument. This argument says that there is no way to know how many minds are associated with one particular human. For all we know there could be many minds in one body, but that seems ridiculous. Using what Dr. Bart said with the split brain that individuals can feel as though there is two conscious minds in their heads, but this is the abnormality. Therefore dualism is incorrect.
explain how a mind-body materialist [physicalist] might [a] explain the causal interaction between mind and body, [b] account for Plato's three different parts of the soul, and [c] explain away the apparent problem of accounting for Phantom-Limb sensations [that is, show how they do not support dualism]
[a] everything is a physical state. With brain imaging technology we are beginning to see where thoughts and feelings happen within the brain. [b] Plato believes that the three parts of the soul are rational, appetitive, and spirited. This can be debunked by looking at the areas of the brain associated with rational, appetitive and spirited thinking as presented by Dr. Swartz. The rational brain is found in the frontal lobe, appetitive found in the brain stem, and spirited can be found in other areas in the brain. [c] Nerves in parts of your spinal cord and brain "rewire" when they lose signals from the missing arm or leg. As a result, they send pain signals, a typical response when your body senses something is wrong. This is a physical reaction of the body.
explain how you now would try to answer the problem of personal identity [what, if anything, makes a person the same person over time?]. Use appropriate information from psychology and neurophysiology to support your view.
This is a difficult question to answer because so little stays the same over time. Thoughts change, our cells are dying and being replaced all the time. Our thoughts and knowledge are ever changing. One thing that I think makes a personal identity is that being feels a direct attachment to their thoughts. As we constantly change our mind adapts with it and that is what creates a personal identity.
explain whether and to what extent it is reasonable to hold that human beings are "responsible" for their actions. Be sure to identify which view [necessitarian, libertarian, or compatibilist] you hold on the free-will problem, and then give the best neurophysiological and psychological defense of it that you can.
I personally hold the compatibillist view. I believe that there is free will and that everything that happens is caused by something previous. Using physiology, I am aware that things happen in succession in the body. One neuron triggers another, than another, and so on and so forth, this fits that everything happens from something previous. And I think that we believe we are free so it makes sense that we are.
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