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Psychology Cognition

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we compare the items to the most typical items of the category
According to the concept of prototypes, how do we decide whether an item belongs to a particular category?
cognitive
the study of how people think, acquire knowledge, imagine, plan and solve problems is called ----- psychology
People answer faster when asked whether a canary is yellow
According to the conceptual network approach, we learn that a canary is a kind of bird, which is a kind of animal. We also learn the distinctive characteristics of canaries, birds, and animals. Wat evidence supports this view?
You become more likely to think of related concepts
When you think about a particular concept
spreading activation
When people are asked how many animals of each species Moses took on the ark, many people answer two instead of noting that Noah, not Moses, was the ark maker. This error has been interpreted in terms of
spearkers of each of the three languages used different number of words
Researchers showed participants from three cultures (who spoke english, spanish, and chinese) pictures of a variety of objects and asked them what word they would use to describe each object. The results indicated
it is possible although difficult to shift our attention away from the center of our visual field
Which of the following statements reguarding intention is true
whatever is unusual given the current context
In general our attention is drawn too
You are at a basketball game and 100 students in one section are wearing matching white tshirts while one student is wearing a bright red shirt. You are likely to immediately notice the person in red
preattentive process
the wheres waldo books represent elaborate drawings each of which contains the character waldo embedded somewhere in the drawing finding waldo requires
attentive process
Stroop effect
People who look at real words find it difficult to say the color of ink of each word,instead of reading the words themselves. This results is known as
Change blindness refers to the phenomenon that
people looking at a scene often fail to notice something that changes
can do two things at once but not plan two actions at once
Research on shifting attention demonstrates that
players learn to divide their attention across a screen
Research on people who spend a great deal of time playing video games suggests that
attentional blink
During the moment after perceiving one stimulus, it is difficult to accurately percieve a second stimulus. this is called the
You are driving in the center lande of three lanes going one direction on a divided highway. Just ahead of you are cars in both the lane to your left and the lane to your right. Suddenly the brake lights of the car on your right flash and one half second later
right because during the moment after responding
Research indicates that becoming an expert on something requires
about 10 years of concentrated practice
Hungarian author laszlo plgar devoted enormous time and effor to teach his three daughters chess. what was he attempting to demonstrate
the expertise is possible
the expert will remember better because of the greater ability to recognize familiar patterns
An expert chess player and a beginner both look at a picture of chess pieces arrabged on a chess board
psychologists say that people go through four phases in solving a problem. which of the following is onw of the four pjrases
generating one or more hypothesis
which of the following is a good device for someone trying to solve a difficult problem
start with a simpler version of the problem
hypothesis
If you are trying to solve a problem and have already simplified it as much as possible the next step is to generate ideas that you can evaluate or test. these preliminary ideas are called
suppose you have been asked to find all the prime bumbers 10,000. You write a computer program to test every possible numebr less than 10000
an algorithm
suppose you have been asked to find as many prime numbers as possible. you know that it is impossible to test all the positive integers so tou devise a strategy
heuristics
sometimes we recognize similar problems as being similar and attempt to use our old
we have seen several examples of the solution
one difference betweem solbing problems and algebra and solving insigtt problems is that when people try to solve an algebra problem
they can usually estimate how close they are to solving it
evidence that solutions to insight problems may involve a gradual progression toward the solution is show by
peoples ability to indicate whether or not problems have solutuonbs even without beung able to solve them
subjects guessed at levels better than chance reguardless of whether they were confident in their guess or not
subjects in an experiment were shown sets of three wprds that either were or were not all associated with a fourth word. the subjects task was to figure out the word that went with the set, if there was one. for sets that the subjects where unable to solvem they were to guess whether the set had a correct answer. what were the main results of this experiment
having a moderate dissatisfaction with the old ways of doing thingfs
howard gardener studied the lives of seven individuals who were widely reguarded as very creative in their respective fields. including freud einstein picasso and others. he found a few things those people had in common.
high creativity seems to be
tied to knownig a lot about a particular topic
representativeness heuristic
the tendency to assume that if an item is similar to members of a particular category, it is probably a member of that category itself, is known as th
the term base rate informtion refers to information about what
how rare or common something is
computers
modern cognitive psychology began to become popular about the same time that people began widely using
people sometimes form a sterotype abot members of a certain group because the remeber a few people who fit the stereotype abd forget those who do not fit it
availabilty heuristic
most people ten to consider themselves better than average, or at least average, drivers. we do so because when we think of other drivers we most easily remember unusually bad driver, and compare ourselves to them.
the availabilty heuristic
critical thinking can best be defined as
the careful evailuation of evidence for and against any conclusion
people ar most likely to be overconfident in the accuacy of their predictions when predicting
overconfident with our own accomplishments