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26 terms

Psych 6

STUDY
PLAY
Stimulus
Something that produces a reaction
Classical conditioning
A simple form of learning in which one stimulus elicits the response usually elicited by another stimulus
Unconditioned stimulus
A stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned
Unconditioned response
An automatic response to a stimulus
Conditioned stimulus
A stimulus that causes a response that is learned
Conditioned response
A learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral
Extinction
Occurs when the conditioned stimulus is disconnected from the unconditioned stimulus
Generalization
Occurs when people respond in the same way to similar stimuli
Discrimination
The act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar
Flooding
A method for reducing fears in which a person is cOntinually exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguished
Systematic desensitization
A gradual method of reducing fears in which people are taught relaxation techniques
Counterconditioning
A method Of reducing fears by repeatedly pairing a pleasant stimulus with a fearful one
Operant conditioning
A form of learning based on the consequences of actions
Positive Reinforcement
Reinforcers that increase the frequency of the behavior they follow when they are Applied
Reinforcement
The process by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again
Negative reinforcement
Reinforcers that increase the frequency of the behavior they follow when they are removed
Punishment
Unwanted events that decrease the frequency of the behavior they follow when they are applied
Continuous
Type of reinforcement in which a behavior is reinforced every time the behavior occurs
Partial
Type of reinforcement in which a behavior is not reinforced every single time it occurs
Fixed ratio
Type of schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a fixed number of correct responses have been made
Fixed interval
Type of schedule in which a fixed amount of time elapses between reinforcements
Variable interval
Type of schedule in which varying amounts of time go by between reinforcements
Latent learning
Learning that remains hidden until it I'd needed
Observational learning
Learning that is aquired through observing and imitating others
Review
The final step in the PQ4R
Variable ratio
Type of schedule in which reinforcement is provided after a variable number of correct responses have been made