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World History ch.12 section 8
Terms in this set (79)
Who was Napolean Bonaparte?
a military genius who dominated Europe for more than a decade
Who did Napoleon favor?
Jacobins and republican rule
Who did Napoleon drove out during the turmoil of the Revolution?
British forces out of the French port of Toulon
What was Napoleon's goal in leading an expedition to Egypt in 1798?
to disrupt British trade
What did Napoleon hide during the Egypt campaign?
stories of the worst losses from his admirers in France
What did Napoleon do as a political leader?
-overthrew the weak Directory
-set up a three-man governing board known as the Consulate
What title did Napoleon take?
title of First Consul
In 1802, what did Napoleon have himself named?
consul for life
What is plebiscite?
popular vote by ballot
Who supported Napoleon?
What was the slogan of the new regime?
order, security, and efficiency
How did Napoleon restore economic prosperity?
-encouraged new industry
-built roads and canals
-set up a system of public schools
Who did Napoleon make peace with?
the Catholic Church in the Concordat of 1801
What did Napoleon encourage?
encourage emigres to return and provided they take an oath of loyalty
Why were the peasants relieved?
they recognized their right to lands they had bought from the Church and nobles during the Revolution
What did the middle class approve?
Napoleon's economic reforms and the restoration of order after years of chaos
What were the jobs Napoleon open based on?
What was the new code of laws called?
the Napoleonic code
What is the Napoleonic Code?
embodied enlightenment principles such as the equality of all citizens before the law, religious toleration, and the abolition of feudalism
What kind of reforms did the Napoleonic Code undo?
-women lost their gained rights and could not exercise the rights of citizenship
-male heads of households regained complete authority over their wives and children
What did Napoleon value?
order and authority over individual rights
What are the Napoleonic Wars?
series of battles that battled for combined forces of the greatest European powers
Why did Napoleon develop a new plan for each battle?
so opposing generals could never anticipate what he would do next
How much was Napoleon's presence on the battlefield worth?
What is annexed?
What countries did Napoleon annexed in his empire?
-Parts of Italy and Germany
How did Napoleon redrawing the map of Europe?
-abolished the totting Holy Roman Empire
-created a 38 member Confederation of the Rhine under French protection
-cut Prussian territory in half, turning part of old Poland into the Grand Duchy of Warsaw
How did Napoleon control much of Europe?
What did the rulers of Austria, Prussia, and Russia sign?
treaties with the Corsican orge
What did napoleon's success boost?
What did the British rely on to stop Napoleon?
What is the Continental System?
closed European ports to British trade
What are blockades?
shutting off ports to keep people or supplies from moving in or out
What did trade restrictions create?
-scarcity of food
-sent prices soaring
-intensified resentment against French power
What did the French armies help to do?
-install revolutionary governments that abolished titles of nobility
-ended Church privileges
-ended serfdom and manorial dues
What did Napoleon's downfall cause?
end to an era of the French Revolution
What did the German states encourage?
national loyalty among German-speaking people to counter French influence
What did Napoleon introduce?
reforms that sought to undermine the Spanish Catholic Church
What is the guerrilla warfare?
Who conducted a campaign of guerrilla warfare against the French?
The Spanish patriots
What did the Spanish resistance encourage?
Austria to resume hostilities against the French
When did napoleon triumphed?
at the battle of Wagram
What happened because of the agreement?
Austria surrendered lands populated by more than three million subjects
Who was the ally of Napoleon?
Tsar Alexander I of Russia
What did Tsar and Napoleon plan?
to divide Europe if Alexander helped Napoleon in his Continental System
How did Napoleon respond to Tsar's actions?
with the Grand Army made up of 20 soldiers
How did they avoid battles with Napoleon?
Russians retreated eastward,
-burning crops and villages
When did Napoleon turned homeward?
How many soldiers survived from the Guard Army?
fewer than 20,000
What was the new alliance that weakened France?
Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia
When did they defeat Napoleon?
in the battle of the nations at Leipzig
What is abdicated?
stepped down from power
Who was recognized as the king of France?
Louis XVIII. brother of Louis XVI
What helped to rekindle loyalty to Napoleon?
an economic depression and the fear of a return tot he old regime
What was Napoleon forced to do?
abdicate and to go into exile on St. Helena, a lonely island on the South Atlantic
What happened after napoleon died?
his legend lived on in France and around the world
How was the France of Napoleon become a centralized state?
with a constitution
what was the result of the constitution?
more citizens had rights to property and access to education than under the old regime
What did Napoleon fail to do?
turn Europe into a French Empire
What will eventually help in creating a new Germany?
abolition of the holy Roman Empire
For how long did the Congress meet?
What is the Congress of Vienna?
a brilliant gathering of European leaders
What did the diplomats and royalty do in the Congress?
-attended concerts and ballets
-enjoyed parties arranged by their host
Who was their host?
Emperor Francis I of Austria
By whom, was defeated France represented by?
Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand
What was the chief goal of the Vienna decision makers?
create a lasting peace by establishing a balance of power and protecting the system of monarchy
What was the Metternich?
a dominant figure at the Congress
What did the Metternich want?
to restore things to the way they were in 1792
Who was determined to prevent a rival of French military power?
What countries did they at to the north?
Belgium and Luxembourg to Holland to create the kingdom of the Netherlands
What did they do to prevent the French expansion eastward?
they gave Prussia lands along the Rhine River
What is legitimay?
restoring heredity monarchies that the French Revolutionaries
What did the Congress restore?
legitimate monarchs in Portugal, Spain, and Italian States
What was done to protect the new order?
extend wartime alliance
What happened in the Quadruple Alliance?
four nations pledged to act together to balance power and suppress uprising
What is the Concert of Europe?
a loose organization whose goal was to preserve the agreement set up by the Congress of Vienna
What did the four powers work for?
to suppress any uprising inspired by the French Revolution
What was the first modern international peace keeping organization?
Concert of Europe
How long did peace last in Europe?
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