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AP Macroeconomics Complete Content Review & Graph Information
Terms in this set (124)
Demand and Supply Graph
Short Run AD/AS Graph
Money Market Graph
Loanable Funds Graph
Investment Demand Graph
Foreign Exchange Graph
Movement on Short-Run Phillips Curve
Shift in AD (graph movement is in opposite direction)
Shift on Short-Run Phillips Curve
Shift in SRAS (shift is in opposite direction)
Shift of Long-Run Phillips Curve
Factors of Production/Shift in LRAS (shift is in opposite direction)
Factors of Production
5. Sometimes Foreign Trade
Shifters of Demand for Loanable Funds
1. Incentive to Invest
2. Contractionary Fiscal Policy (to the right)
Shifters of Supply of Loanable Funds
1. Incentive to Save
2. Monetary Policy
3. Expansionary Fiscal Policy (to the left)
Shifters of Money Supply
Shifters of Money Demand
1. Price Level
3. Fiscal Policy
Shifters of Long-Run Aggregate Supply
Factors of Production
Shifters of Short-Run Aggregate Supply
1. Factors of Production (LRAS)
2. Input Costs
3. Supply Shock
Shifters of Aggregate Demand
1. GDP (or its components)
2. Monetary Policy
3. Fiscal Policy
Expansionary Fiscal Policy
1. Increase Government Spending
2. Decrease Taxes
Contractionary Fiscal Policy
1. Decrease Government Spending
2. Increase Taxes
Expansionary Monetary Policy
1. Decrease Reserve Requirements
2. Decrease Discount Rates
3. Buying Open-Market Operations (Bonds/Securities)
Contractionary Monetary Policy
1. Increase Reserve Requirements
2. Decrease Discount Rates
3. Sell Open-Market Operations (Government Bonds/Securities)
Shifters of Supply and Demand for Currencies
1. Interest Rate
3. Price Level
*Increase in Demand for one currency decreases the supply in the other; always opposite.
the ability to produce a good using fewer inputs than another producer
the ability to produce a good at a lower opportunity cost than another producer; basis for international trade
terms of trade
the ratio at which a country can trade its exports for imports from other countries
GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)
international agreement first signed in 1947 aimed at lowering trade barriers
an association of European nations formed in 1993 for the purpose of achieving political and economic integration.
the group of European Union nations whose national currency is the euro.
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement)
An agreement for free trade between the United States and Canada and Mexico
WTO (World Trade Organization)
organization through which member nations negotiate trading agreements and resolve disputes about trade policies and practices
A government tax on imports or exports
all impediments other than protective tariffs that nations establish to impede imports, including quotas, licensing requirements, unreasonable product quality standards, etc.
An excise tax on imported goods that raises the price of imports so people will buy domestic goods
tax on imports used primarily to raise government revenue without restricting imports
a limit on the number of products in certain categories that a nation can import
Military Self-Sufficiency Argument
The argument is that the country cannot be dependent on other countries for its national defense
infant industry argument
New industries in developing countries must be temporarily protected from international competition to help them reach a position where they can compete on world markets with the firms of developed nations.
selling products in a foreign country at lower prices than those charged in the producing country
Cheap Foreign Labor Argument
argument that low wages in competing countries harm domestic production
a tax on the production, sale, or consumption of goods produced within a country
equation of exchange; money supply x velocity = nominal GDP
fractional reserve banking
a banking system that keeps only a fraction of funds on hand and lends out the remainder
on a bank's t-account, demand deposits will go here
on a bank's t-account, loans will go here
a bank's reserves over and above its required reserves; basis for how much a bank can lend
Federal Funds Rate (FFR)
the interest rate that banks charge one another to borrow money
The interest rate on the loans that the Fed makes to banks
it issues our paper currency and determines monetary policy
money multiplier if the RRR is 1%
money multiplier if the RRR is 5%
money multiplier if the RRR is 10%
money multiplier if the RRR is 20%
formula for money multiplier
open market operations
the purchase and sale of U.S. government bonds by the Fed
Buy bonds, lower discount rate, lower reserve requirement
Fed strategies to combat recession
Sell bonds, raise discount rate, raise reserve requirement
Fed strategies to combat inflation
formula for determining excess reserves
excess reserves x money multiplier
formula for determining the maximum change in demand deposits from a deposit
They are caused by unexpected changes in total spending, which are often caused by shocks. Recurring increases and decreases in the level of economic activity over periods of years; consists of peak, recession, trough, and expansion phases
The point in a business cycle at which business activity has reached a temporary maximum; the economy is near or at full employment and the level of real output is at or very to the economy's capacity
A period of declines in real GDP, accompanied by lower real income and higher unemployment
The point in a business cycle at which business activity has reached a temporary minimum; the point at which a recession has ended and an expansion (recovery) begins
A phase of the business cycle in which real GDP, income, and employment rise
Sources of shock that can cause business cycles:
Irregular Innovation; Productivity changes; Monetary factors; Political events; Financial instability
A rise in the general level of prices in an economy
Consumer Price Index
CPI; An index that measures the prices of a fixed "market basket" of some 300 goods and services bought by a "typical" consumer
Nominal or current GDP
has not been adjusted for inflation
GDP adjusted for inflation
Real GDP per capita
real GDP divided by the total population
Fear and Confidence
human emotions that contribute to the fluctuations in the business cycle
2 quarters of negative GDP growth
indicates a recession
Rule of 70
A method for determining the number of years it will take for some measure to double, given its annual percentage increase. Example: To determine the number of years it will take for the price level to double.
recession and expansion
two main phases of business cycle
(Nominal GDP/Price Index) x 100
Real GDP formula
The social science concerned with how individuals, institutions, and society make optimal (best) choices under conditions of scarcity.
A situation in which unlimited wants exceed the limited resources available to fulfill those wants
Goods and services that are sacrificed to produce resources. In choosing the best option, people incur an opportunity cost-the value of the next-best option. Gates gave up college to found Microsoft. Oprah Winfrey dropped out of college to continue her broadcast career and launch her show.
Comparison of marginal benefits and marginal costs, usually for decision making. MB (utility); MC (added expense).
Economic relies on the scientific method--observing real-world behavior and outcomes; hypothesis; testing data; making a conclusion.
other-things-equal assumption (ceteris paribus)
The assumption that factors other than those being considered do not change.
The part of economics concerned with decision making by individual customers, workers, households, and business firms. Microeconomics focuses on specific decision-making units of the economy.
Examines either the economy as a whole or its basic subdivisions or aggregates, such as the government, household, and business sectors. Macroeconomics focuses on the economy as a whole.
A collection of specific economic units treated as if they were one unit.
Focuses on the facts and cause-and-effect relationships. Avoids value judgements. Scientific based analysis. Looks at what is. FACTS.
Incorporates value judgements about what the economy should be like or what policy actions should be recommended to achieve a desirable goal; looks at what ought to be. OPINION.
All natural, human, and manufactured resources that go into the production of goods and services.
Four categories of economic resources (a.k.a. factors of production or inputs)
Land, labor, capital, and entrepreneurial ability
All natural resources--gifts of nature--used in the production process, e.., forests, mineral and oil-deposits, water resources, wind power, sunlight, and arable land. Arable land is land capable of being plowed and used to grow crops.
The physical actions and mental activities that people contribute to the production of goods and services.
Capital or capital goods
All manufactured aids used in producing goods and services; not same as money. Capital includes, e.g., all factory, storage, transportation, and distribution facilities, as well as tools and machinery.
Special human resource, distinct from labor--the entrepreneur is driving force in successful business who makes business decisions, innovates, takes risks.
Production possibilities curve
Simplest model-Full employment; fixed resources, fixed technology; two goods
Law of increasing opportunity costs
As the production of a particular good increases, the opportunity cost of producing an additional unit rises.
Unemployment causes an economy to operate at a point inside its production possibilities curve.
A larger total output: increases in resource supplies, improvements in resource quality and technological advance cause economic growth, which is depicted as an outward sift of the production possibilities curve.
International specialization and trade
Two factors that enable a nation to obtain more goods than its production possibilities curve indicates.
Optimal best point on production possibilities curve
The optimal best point on the PPC represents the most desirable mix of goods and is determined by expanding the production of each good until its marginal benefit (MB) equals it marginal cost (MC).
The additional satisfaction or utility that a person receives from consuming an additional unit of a good or service. A person's marginal benefit is the maximum amount they are willing to pay to consume that additional unit of a good or service.
the cost added by producing one additional unit of a product or service.
Production Possibilities Model Assumptions
Fixed Resources, Fixed Technology, Full Employment, Two Goods
circular flow model
circular flow model model that shows the flow of resources, products, and money in our economy
In the circular flow model, they own/sell the factors of production and buy products
firms or businesses
In the circular flow model, they sell products and buy the factors of production
a set of institutions and a coordinating mechanism to respond to the economizing problem
also known as pure capitalism; markets direct economic activity and there is a very limited role for government in the economy
system that relies on public ownership of resources and the use of central planning; government makes most economic decisions
private ownership of resources; markets and prices coordinate economic activity; government plays a role in the economy by providing rules, enforcing contracts, providing public goods; most economies today fall into this category
a place, institution, or process where buyers and sellers interact with each other
a process in which an individual or business completes one task repetitively and develops expertise in that task; increases productive efficiency
division of labor
a means of specialization; a large task is broken down into several smaller tasks
the 5 fundamental questions for each economic system
1. what to produce; 2. how to produce; 3. who gets what we produce; 4. how will we accommodate change; 5. how will we promote progress?
the combined force of each individual promoting their own interests yet serving the economy as a whole
new technology that makes old technology obsolete, useless
a business owned and operated by one person
a business owned and operated by two or more people
a business owned by stockholders and run by a board of directors
the idea that the consumer in a market economy holds the ultimate power, deciding what will be produced
consumers choose what will be produced in a market economy by purchasing goods and services, sending a signal to produce more or less of a good
There Is No Such Thing As A Free Lunch; everything has a cost
Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of political economics. Seen today as the father of Capitalism. Wrote On the Wealth of Nations (1776) One of the key figures of the Scottish Enlightenment.
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