sterilization= total destruction, destroying all cells/particles, including viruses. Using "cidal methods" (meaning to kill) Examples, 'bactericide", "fungicide", "virucide", and "sporicide". Control methods that sterilize are generally used on inanimate objects, because treatment on humans is harsh and dangerous.
sanitization= reducing numbers, killing some cells/inhibiting growth. Any cleansing technique that removes debris, microorganisms, toxins, and in his way reduces the potential for infection and spoilage. by "static methods" (meaning to "stand still"), a condition where microbes are temporarily prevented from multiplying but are not killed. Sanitization is often preferable to sterilization (less harmful and inexpensive) Examples, " bacteriostatic agents"
best exemplified by UV, excites atoms by raising them to a higher state, but does not ionize them. This leads to formation of abnormal bonds within molecules such as DNA is thus a source of mutations. Owing to its lower energy state, UV radiation is not as penetrating as ionizing radiation, because UV radiation passes readily through air, slightly through liquids, and only poorly through solids. Object must be directly exposed to it for full effect. As UV radiation passes through a cell it is initially absorbed by DNA. Specific molecular damages occur ( pyrimidine dimers). Which interfere with DNA replication and transcription, resulting in inhibition of growth and cellular death. In addition, UV light disrupts cells by generating toxic photochemicals called "free radicals", which interfere with essential cell processes by binding to DNA, RNA, and proteins.
Powerful tool for destroying fungal cells and spores, bacterial vegetative cells, protozoa, and viruses. Usually directed at "disinfection" rather than "sterilization".
Can be used in water treatment, disinfecting nonporous materials )such as walls and floors, drugs, meat, nuts, tissues for grafting), and for personal items.
Disadvantage- is its poor powers of penetration through solid materials, such as glass, metal, cloth, and plastic. And damage to overexposure on human tissues.
1st EditionDay, Stewart
5th EditionCharlotte W. Pratt, Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet
11th EditionLisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Peter V Minorsky, Steven A. Wasserman
2nd EditionDavid E. Sadava, David M. Hillis, H. Craig Heller