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psychology 101: final exam ch 16 - social psychology
Terms in this set (33)
social psychology: the branch of psychology that studies how others influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions; it also studies group and intergroup phenomena.
social cognition: (subfield of social psychology) how we think about and interpret ourselves and others.
two of the most important topics in social cognition:
attribution: the principles we follow when making judgements about the causes of events, others' behavior, and our own behavior
- everyone wants to understand and explain why people behave as they do, and why events occur as they do
- developing logical attributions for people's behavior makes us feel safer and more in control
- key to making correct attributions begins with the decision of whether a given action stems mainly from the person's internal disposition (personality, beliefs, attitude) or from the external situation
our attributions are frequently ruined by two major errors:
1) the fundamental attribution error (FAE)
- fundamental attribution error (FAE): the tendency of observers to overestimate the influence of internal, dispositional factors on a person's behavior, while underestimating the impact of external, situational factors.
(ex: in class, new girl quiet; u prob think she's stuck up due to a dispositional attribution but when u interact w her one on one, she's cool. her behavior is just based on the situation. the FAE is when a person judges a person without considering maybe that person is being like are due to a certain situation)
- we think this way bc human personalities and behaviors are more noticeable than situational factors
- saliency bias: a type of attributional bias in which people tend to focus on the most noticeable (salient) factors when explaining the causes of behavior.
(ex: helps explain why people sometimes suggest that homeless people begging for money "should just go out and get a job"—a phenomenon also called "blaming the victim.")
- when we focus on possible situational influences on behavior, we're more likely to make better more accurate judgments of the causes of events and other people's behavior.
2) the self-serving bias.
- self-serving bias: a type of attributional bias, in which we take credit for our successes, but blame other people or events for our failures.
- happens when we explain our own behavior
- we tend to favor internal (personality) attributions for our successes and blame external (situational) attributions for our failures.
- this bias is motivated by our desire to maintain positive self-esteem and a good public image
(ex: elite olympic athletes more often attribute their wins to internal (personal) causes, such as their skill and effort, while attributing their losses to external (situational) causes, such as bad equipment or poor officiating)
- people w poor self-efficacy may be more likely to blame themselves or feel guilty over perceived failures
why do we do all this^ though?
actor-observer effect: the tendency to attribute one's own actions to external (situational) factors while attributing others' actions to internal (dispositional) causes.
- when examining our own behaviors, we are the actors in the situation and know more about our own intentions and behaviors, and naturally look to the environment for explanations: "I didn't tip the waiter because I got really bad service."
- when explaining the behavior of others, we are observing the actors and therefore tend to blame the person, using a personality attribution: "She didn't tip the waiter because she's cheap"
culture and attributional biases
individualistic cultures (united states): people are defined and understood as individual selves, largely responsible for their own successes and failures.
collectivistic culture (china & japan): people are primarily defined as members of their social network, responsible for doing as others expect.
- they tend to be more aware of situational constraints on behavior - making the FAE less likely.
- self serving bias: less common because self-esteem is related not to doing better than others, but to fitting in with the group
(ex: in Japan, the ideal person is aware of his or her shortcomings and continually works to overcome them—rather than thinking highly of himself or herself)
when we observe and respond to the world around us, our responses reflect our attitudes
- attitudes: the learned predisposition (tendency) to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to a particular object, person, place, thing, or event in an evaluative way.
most attitudes have three ABC components:
A) affect, or feelings
B) behavior, or actions
C) cognitions, or thoughts and beliefs
we tend to learn our attitudes from direct instruction, through personal experiences, and by watching others.
in some cases, these sources may differ depending on our gender
- ex: researchers have found that teenage boys are more likely to learn sexual attitudes from media representations of sexual behavior, whereas teenage girls tend to learn their sexual attitudes from their mothers, as long as they feel close to their mothers
once our attitudes are formed they can literally affect how we view the world!
attitudes form in early childhood but they are not permanent.
you can change attitudes by
1) look at figure 16.4, attitudes change through experiments
2) a much more common method is to be direct (ex: ads that say, "Friends Don't Let Friends Drive Drunk!")
3) even more efficient strategy: create contradictions between our attitudes, or between our attitudes and our behaviors, that lead to feelings of discomfort, known as cognitive dissonance
(cognitive dissonance: the unpleasant tension and anxiety caused by a discrepancy between two or more conflicting attitudes or between attitudes and behaviors.) (ex: read example on pg. 510 in passage)
- once we've created or experienced cognitive dissonance, how can we reduce it? (see step-by-step diagram 16.1)
culture and cognitive dissonance
may depend on a distinctly western way of thinking about and evaluating the self
people in eastern cultures tend not to define themselves in terms of their individual accomplishments.
making a bad decision may not pose the same threat to self-esteem that it would in more individualistic cultures, such as the united states
attitudes are important because they often, but not always, predict behavior. (ex: research has found that teenage drivers' attitudes about speeding are a strong predictor of whether they actually speed—and receive speeding tickets— later on)
social influence: how situational factors and other people affect us
in this section, we explore three key topics:
3. group processes
conformity: changes in behavior, attitudes, or values because of real or imagined group pressure.
read about the experiment on pg. 513
- asch's study has been conducted dozens of times, in at least 17 countries, and generally with similar results
- but not when test is presented in an online format where participants could communicate with, but not see, one another
3 factors that drives conformity:
1) normal social influence:
- one of the 1st reasons we conform is that we want to go along with group norms (norm: a cultural rule of behavior prescribing what is acceptable and unacceptable in a given situation) (ex: asking ur homegirl what she's wearing so you're not underdressed or overdressed)
- we conform bc of our need for approval and acceptance by the group, and because conforming to group norms makes us feel good
- most often norms are quite subtle and only implied
2) informational social influence:
- ex: buying a specific product bc of your friend's recommendation (ur not conforming to gain their approval) because you assumed that they had more information than you did
- can work even if u do not know the person (ex: online & movie reviews)
3) reference group:
- people we most admire, like, and want to resemble.
- attractive actors and popular sports stars are paid millions of dollars to endorse products because advertisers know that we want to be as cool as LeBron James, or as beautiful as Natalie Portman
- parents, friends, family members, teachers, religious leaders, and classmates—all of whom affect our willingness to conform
*surprisingly, popular peers who had negative attitudes toward alcohol use were even more influential in determining rates of teenage drinking than those with positive attitudes!
obedience: following direct commands, usually from an authority figure.
from very early childhood, we're socialized to respect and obey our parents, teachers, and other authority figures.
- we conform and obey most of the time because it's in our own best interests (and everyone else's) to do so.
(ex: like most other North Americans, we stand in line at a movie theatre instead of pushing ahead of others. This allows an orderly purchasing of tickets.)
- conformity and obedience allow social life to proceed with safety, order, and predictability.
not always good to obey!
- we don't want teenagers (or adults) engaging in risky sex or drug use just to be part of the crowd. And we don't want soldiers (or anyone else) mindlessly following orders just because they were told to do so by an authority figure.
- recognizing/resisting destructive forms of obedience are particularly important to our society—and to social psychology.
(read study pg 516)
important factors that influenced obedience:
- legitimacy and closeness of the authority figure
- remoteness of the victim
- assignment of responsibility
- modeling or imitation of others
- from an early age, we're all taught to listen to and respect people in positions of authority.
2) the foot-in-the-door technique:
- foot-in-the-door technique: an initial, small request is used as a setup for a later, larger request.
(ex: once milgram's participants complied with the initial request, they might have felt obligated to continue.)
3) relaxed moral guard:
- one common intellectual illusion that hinders critical think- ing about obedience is the belief that only evil people do evil things, or that evil announces itself.
(ex: the experimenter in milgram's study looked and acted like a reasonable person who was simply carrying out a research project. Because he was not seen as personally corrupt and evil, the participants' normal moral guard was down, which can maximize obedience.)
3. group processes
- deindividuation: to be deindividuated means that we feel less self-conscious, less inhibited, and less personally responsible as a member of a group than when we're alone
- groups sometimes actively promote deindividuation by requiring members to wear uniforms, for example, as a way to increase allegiance and conformity.
group decision making:
- groups actually supported riskier decisions than decisions they made as individuals before the discussion
- but some groups support riskier decisions while others support conservative decisions
- a group's final decision depends primarily on its dominant preexisting tendencies.
- if the dominant initial position is risky, the final decision will be even riskier, and the reverse is true if the initial position is conservative - a process called group polarization.
(group polarization the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme (either riskier or more conservative), depending on the members' initial dominant tendency.
- it appears that as individuals interact and share their opinions, they pick up new and more persuasive information that supports their original opinions, which may help explain why American politics has become so polarized in recent years
(ex: can you see how if we only interact and work with like-minded people, or only talk politics with those who agree with us, we're likely to become even more polarized?)
- read the jury story pg 519
- groupthink: the faulty decision making that occurs when a highly cohesive (united) group strives for agreement, especially if it is in line with the leader's viewpoint, and avoids contradictory information
(ex: when a group is highly cohesive (a couple, a family, a panel of military advisers, an athletic team), the members' desire for agreement may lead them to ignore important information or points of view held by outsiders or critics)
- to make matters worse, women are especially likely to refrain from speaking up in a group setting, so their opinions are less likely to be heard than men's
how can we prevent?
- you might suggest that group leaders either absent themselves from discussions or remain impartial and silent.
- second, can you see how the group members should avoid isolation and be encouraged to voice their dissenting opinions, in addition to seeking advice and input from outside experts?
- a third option is to suggest that members should generate as many alternatives as possible and that voting be done by secret ballot versus a show of hands.
- finally, group members should be reminded that they will be held responsible for their decisions, which will offset the illusion of invulnerability, collective rationalizations, stereotypes, and so on.
all behavior results from interactions between the individual and the environment
- social relations: how we develop and are affected by interpersonal relationships.
prejudice and discrimination
prejudice: a learned, unjustified negative, attitude toward members of a group; it includes thoughts (stereotypes), feelings, and behavioral tendencies (discrimination).
- this limits a perpetrator's ability to accurately judge others and to process information.
- prejudice is composed of three
ABC elements: affective (emotions about the group), behavioral (predispositions and negative actions toward members of the group), and cognitive (stereotypes about group members).
- stereotypes: generalizations about a group of people in which the same characteristics are assigned to all members of the group; also, the cognitive component of prejudice.
**although the terms prejudice and discrimination are often used
interchangeably, they are not the same.
prejudice refers to an attitude, whereas discrimination refers to action.
the two often coincide, but not always
- common sources of prejudice and discrimination
five commonly cited sources of prejudice:
2. personal experience
3. limited resources
4. displaced aggression
5. mental shortcuts
people learn prejudice the same way they learn other attitudes—primarily through classical and operant conditioning and social learning
- ex: repeated exposure to stereotypical portrayals of minorities and women in movies, online, magazines, and TV teach children that such images are correct
- hearing parents, friends, and teachers express their prejudices also can create or reinforce prejudice
- ethnocentrism: believing our own culture represents the norm or is superior to others, is also a form of a learned prejudice.
2. personal experience
we also develop prejudice through direct experience.
- ex: when people make prejudicial remarks or "jokes," they often gain attention and even approval from others.
- denigrating others also seems to boost some people's self-esteem
- once someone has one or more negative interactions or experiences with members of a specific group, he or she may generalize the resulting bad feelings and prejudice to all members of that group.
3. limited resources
most of us understand that prejudice and discrimination exact a high price on their victims, but few appreciate the significant economic and political advantages they offer to the dominant group
- ex: the stereotype that African Americans and Latinos are inferior to European Americans helps justify and perpetuate a social order in the United States in which European Americans hold disproportionate power and resources.
4. displaced aggression
frustration sometimes leads people to attack the perceived cause of that frustration.
- BUT, as history has shown, when the source is ambiguous, or too powerful and capable of retaliation, people often redirect their aggression toward an alternative, innocent target, known as a scapegoat.
(ex: blacks, jews, native Americans, and other less empowered groups have a long and tragic history of being tortured, enslaved, killed, and scapegoated)
(ex: in the United States beginning in the 1980s, gay men were blamed for the AIDS epidemic, and Hispanic immigrant groups are now being blamed for the nation's recent economic troubles)
5. mental shortcuts
prejudice is also believed to develop from everyday mental shortcuts that we create to simplify our complex social world
- stereotypes allow quick judgments about others, thereby freeing up mental resources for other activities.
- these mental shortcuts too often lead to negative outcomes
(ex: when a science faculty were sent identical résumés from a male and a female student applying for a job as a laboratory manager, both male and female faculty members rated the male applicant as more competent and hirable than the female)
people use stereotypes as mental shortcuts when they classify others in terms of their membership in a group.
- given that people generally classify themselves as part of the preferred group, they also create in-groups and out-groups.
(in-group: any category to which people see themselves as belonging
out-group: any other category)
- compared with the way they judge members of the out-group, people tend to judge in-group members as being more attractive, having better personalities, and so on -
a phenomenon known as in-group favoritism
- people also tend to recognize greater diversity among members of their in-group than they do among members of out-groups (out-group homogeneity effect: judging members of an out-group as more alike and less diverse than members of the in-group.)
- when members of minority groups are not recognized as varied and complex individuals, it is easier to treat them in discriminatory ways.
(ex: war - viewing people on the other side as simply faceless enemies makes it easier to kill large numbers of soldiers and civilians.)
stereotypes and prejudice can operate even without a person's conscious awareness or control.
- implicit bias: a hidden, automatic attitude that may guide behaviors independent of a person's awareness or control.
(ex: after making comments that implied black people are not as intelligent as whites, Nobel laureate James Watson said: "I cannot understand how I could have said what I am quoted as having said. There is no scientific belief for such a belief.")
- we do this bc we naturally put things into groups or categories to help us make sense of the world around us.
- BUT the prototypes and hierarchies we develop are sometimes based on incorrect stereotypes of various groups.
- the price of prejudice and discrimination
prejudice and discrimination have a long, sad global history
prejudice also severely limits the perpetrator's ability to accurately judge others, and to correctly process information.
- ex: U.S. public's reaction to the naming of hurricanes
(archival research on more than
six decades of death rates from U.S. hurricanes reveals that more people have died from feminine-named hurricanes (like Betsy), than from masculine-named
hurricanes (such as Charlie))
- a hurricane's name taps into our hidden, gender-based stereotypes.
- men are generally perceived as being strong and aggressive, whereas women are seen as being weak and passive.
(these gender stereotypes then apparently lead respondents to perceive a lower risk and to take fewer precautions to "Hurricane Betsy" than to "Hurricane Charlie"—with deadly consequences!)
why does it prejudice and discrimination keep happening then?
- learning theorists believe that human behavior only continues if it's reinforced.
- where are the reinforcers? the most important, but seldom acknowledged, payoffs for prejudice are the economic and political benefits to the perpetrators.
(if certain minority groups (and women), are considered less important and valuable, they can be paid less for equal work.)
- another possibility is ethnocentrism, the tendency to favor our own group over others
- ex: most agree that it's relatively harmless (and highly reinforcing) to be a fan and loyal supporter of your local sports team.
- however, can you also see how our feelings of pride and reflected glory can sometimes escalate to destructive feelings of superiority and prejudice against the opponents?
overcoming prejudice and discrimination
four major approaches:
1) cooperation and common goals
2) intergroup contact
3) cognitive restraining
4) cognitive dissonance
1) cooperation and common goals:
- one of the best ways to combat prejudice and discrimination is to encourage cooperation rather than competition (read study on pg. 524)
- superordinate goals (the "mini-crises")
2) intergroup contact:
- increase contact and positive experiences between groups
- but contact can sometimes increase prejudice.
- increasing contact works only under certain conditions that provide for close interaction, interdependence (superordinate goals that require cooperation), and equal status.
3) cognitive retraining
- take another's perspective or undo associations of negative stereotypical traits
(ex: televised specials and recent movies, like 42 and The Butler, help the viewing public understand and empathize with the pressures and heroic struggles of Blacks to gain equal rights)
- people can also learn to be less prejudiced if they are taught to selectively pay attention to similarities rather than differences
4) cognitive dissonance:
- each time we meet someone who does not conform to our prejudiced views, we experience dissonance
(ex: "I thought all gay men were effeminate. This guy is a deep-voiced, professional athlete. I'm confused.")
- to resolve the dissonance, we can maintain our stereotypes by saying, "This gay man is an exception to the rule."
- BUT if we continue our contact with a large variety of gay men, or when the media shows more instances of non-stereotypical gay individuals, this "exception to the rule" defense eventually breaks down, and attitude change occurs
(on May 6, 2013, Jason Collins became the first openly gay, male athlete playing in a major American team sport. Why did he decide to publicly announce his sexual orientation? One of his many reasons was: "I want to march for tolerance, acceptance, and understanding)
like prejudice and discrimination, violence toward others is an unfortunate part of our social relations.
- when we intentionally try to inflict psychological or physical harm on another, psychologists call it aggression
(aggression: any behavior intended to cause psychological or physical harm to another individual.)
1) biological explanations:
- because aggression has such a long history and is found in all cultures, some scientists believe that humans are instinctively aggressive
- most social psychologists, however, reject this "instinct" argument, but do accept the fact that biology plays a role.
(ex: brain injuries and other disorders also has identified possible aggression circuits in the brain)
- testosterone and lowered levels of some neurotransmitters links with aggressive behavior
2) psychological explanations:
- substance abuse (particularly alcohol abuse) is a major factor in many forms of aggression
- aversive stimuli, such as loud noise, heat, pain, bullying, insults, and foul odors, also may increase aggression
- frustration-aggression hypothesis: a hypothesis which states that the blocking of a desired goal (frustration) creates anger that may lead to aggression.
- social-learning theory suggests that people raised in a culture with aggressive models will develop more aggressive responses
(ex: the United States has a high rate of violent crime, and there are widespread portrayals of violence on TV, the Internet, movies, and video games which may contribute to aggression in both children and adults)
- exposure to violence increases aggressiveness and that aggressive children tend to seek out violent programs
3) reducing aggression:
- we should release our aggressive impulses by engaging in harmless forms of aggression, such as exercising vigorously, punching a pillow, or watching competitive sports.
- BUT this type of catharsis doesn't really help & it may even intensify the negative feelings
- we should introduce incompatible responses.
- because certain emotional responses, such as empathy and humor, are incompatible with aggression, purposely making a joke or showing some sympathy for an opposing person's point of view can reduce anger and frustration
how to prevent gun violence:
- primary prevention (also called universal prevention): involves healthy development in the general population, such as teaching better social and communication skills to all ages.
- secondary prevention (also called selective prevention): consists of providing assistance for at-risk individuals, including mentoring programs and conflict-mediation services.
- tertiary prevention (also called indicated prevention): involves intensive services for individuals with a history of aggressive behavior to prevent a recurrence or escalation of aggression, such as programs that rehabilitate juvenile offenders.
besides all the negatives, here are some positive ways in which humans behave
people help and support one another by donating blood, giving time and money to charities, helping stranded motorists, and so on.
- but there are also times when people do not help.
let's consider both!
- why do we help?
altruism: prosocial behaviors designed to help others, with no obvious benefit to the helper
three key approaches to explaining why we help:
1) evolutionary theory of helping:
- evolutionary theory of helping: a theory which states that altruism is an instinctual behavior that has evolved because it favors survival of one's genes.
(ex: by helping our own child or other relative, for example, we increase the odds of our genes' survival.)
2) egoistic model of helping:
- egoistic model of helping: a theory which states that altruism is motivated by anticipated gain—later reciprocation, increased self-esteem, or avoidance of distress and guilt.
(we help others only because we hope for later reciprocation, because it makes us feel virtuous, or because it helps us avoid feeling guilty)
3) empathy-altruism hypothesis:
- empathy-altruism hypothesis: a theory proposing that we help because of empathy for someone in need.
- seeing another person struggles can make us understand them and share our own feelings w them
- when we feel empathic toward another, we are motivated to help that person for his or her own sake.
(ex: middle school students who had been bullied were more likely to say that they would help another student who was being bullied)
- the ability to empathize may even be innate
(ex: infants in the first few hours of life are more likely to cry and become distressed at the sound of another infant's cries, but not to tape recordings of their own cries, or those of an infant chimpanzee)
- why don't we help?
whether someone helps depends on a series of interconnected events and decisions:
1) the potential helper must notice what is happening, interpret the event as an emergency, accept personal responsibility for helping, decide how to help, and then actually initiate the helping behavior
- most onlookers report that they failed to intervene because they were certain that someone must already have called the police.
- bystander effect: a phenomenon in which the greater the number of bystanders, the less likely it is that any one individual will feel responsible for seeking help or giving aid to someone who is in need of help.
why are we less likely to help when others are around?
- when others are present, we assume the responsibility for acting is shared, or diffused, among all onlookers
- when we're the lone observer, we recognize that we have the sole responsibility for acting.
how can we promote helping?
- diffusion of responsibility: the dilution (or diffusion) of personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other observers.
- it's important to clarify when help is needed and then assign responsibility.
(ex: most parents teach their children to scream as loudly as they can if they're being abducted by a stranger. given that children often scream, for a variety of reasons, can you see why this might not work?
instead, they should be taught to make eye contact with anyone who may be watching and then to shout something like: "This isn't my parent. Help me!"
- "What Would You Do?" and "CNN Heroes," which honor and reward altruism, also increase helping.
- enacting laws that protect helpers from legal liability, so-called "good Samaritan" laws, also encourages helping behavior.
interpersonal attraction: positive
feelings toward another.
- causes us to feel admiration, liking, friendship, intimacy, lust, or love
three compelling factors in interpersonal attraction:
1. physical attractiveness
1. physical attractiveness
the way we look—including facial characteristics, body size and shape, and manner of dress—is one of the most important factors in our initial attraction, liking, or loving of others
attractive individuals are seen as being more poised, interesting, cooperative, achieving, sociable, independent, intelligent, healthy, and sexually warm than unattractive people
standards for attractiveness appear consistent across cultures, with most people showing a preference for faces that are average as opposed to "distinct"
- cultures also show consistency in what they want in a mate
- women are valued more for looks and youth, whereas men are valued more for maturity, ambitiousness, and financial resources
- men prefer attractive women because youth and good looks generally indicate better health, sound genes, and high fertility
- women prefer men with maturity and resources because the responsibility of rearing and nurturing children has historically fallen primarily on women's shoulders.
beauty is in "the eye of the beholder."
- what we judge as beautiful varies somewhat from era to era and culture to culture
wb ugly people?
- human mating involves a host of mental skills and attributes, including charisma, humor, personality, intelligence, compassion, and even clever pick-up lines
both men and women tend to select partners whose physical attractiveness approximately matches their own
the least recognized, but one of the most effective, ways to increase attractiveness and signal interest to a potential romantic partner is with verbal and nonverbal flirting.
- flirting provides positive cues of your interest, and thereby increases your attractiveness
- in heterosexual couples, the generally accepted norms are for the woman to first signal her interest, and for the man to make the first approach
attraction also depends on the two people being in the same place at the same time.
- proximity, or geographic nearness, is another major factor in attraction.
- true in a social network virtual world—the closer an avatar is to another avatar, the more likely she or he is to receive a friend invitation
- the likelihood of a friendship decreases as distance between people increases
there is a causative link between proximity and attraction
- ex: oxytocin, a naturally occurring bodily chemical, is known to be a key facilitator of interpersonal attraction and parental attachment
- oxytocin may help maintain monogamous (married to one person) relationships by making men avoid close personal proximity to other women.
- mere-exposure effect: a developed preference for people or things simply because they are familiar.
- just as familiar people become more physically attractive over time, repeated exposure also increases overall liking
(evolutionary point of view: relevancy!)
we tend to prefer, and stay with, people who are most like us—those who share our ethnic background, social class, interests, and attitudes
- "Birds of a feather flock together."
how do we make sense of love? why do we love some people and not others?
four perspectives on love:
1) consummate love
2) romantic love
3) companionate love
- triarchic theory of love: sternberg's theory that different stages and types of love result from three basic components—intimacy, passion, and commitment.
1) intimacy: emotional closeness and connectedness, mutual trust, friendship, warmth, self-disclosure, and forming of "love maps."
2) passion: sexual attraction and desirability, physical excitement, a state of intense longing to be with the other.
3) commitment: permanence and stability, the decision to stay in the relationship for the long haul, and the feelings of security that go with this intention.
1) consummate love
consummate love: sternberg's strongest and most enduring type of love, based on a balanced combination of intimacy, passion, and commitment (fullest form of love)
- trouble occurs when one of the partners has a higher or lower need for one or more of the components
(ex: if one partner has a much higher need for intimacy and the other partner has a stronger interest in passion, this lack of compatibility can be fatal to the relationship—unless the partners are willing to compromise and strike a mutually satisfying balance)
2) romantic love
romantic love: an intense feeling of attraction to another in an erotic context.
- romantic love is largely based on mystery and fantasy.
- its intense joys and sorrows also have inspired countless poems, novels, movies, and songs around the world.
- "romantic love constitutes a human universal or, at the least, a near universal"
romantic love may be almost universal, but even in the most devoted couples, the intense attraction and excitement of romantic love generally begin to fade 6 to 30 months after the relationship begins, whereas companionate love grows and evolves
3) companionate love
companionate love: strong and enduring love characterized by deep trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship
- based on deep trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship, which slowly develops as couples grow and spend more time together.
people often fall in love with what they want another person to be—and these illusions usually fade with the realities of everyday living
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