1920s and Great Depression Review
Review these terms for tomorrow's exam.
Terms in this set (31)
1920s era of freewheeling popular culture. People defied prohibition and indulged in new styles of dancing and dressing, rejected many traditional moral standards.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil-drilling rights on government land in return for money
Sacco and Vanzetti Trial
the trial of two Italian immigrants in Massachusetts came to symbolize the anti-foreign feeling of the 1920s.
1925 court case argued by Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan in which the issue of teaching evolution in public schools was debated
carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s. Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.
African Americans - from the South to northern cities between 1915 and 1930 in search of jobs.
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Depression shantytowns, named after the president whom many blamed for their financial distress
1928; Republican; approach to economy known as voluntarism (avoid destroying individuality/self-reliance by government coercion of business); of course, in 1929 the stock market crashed; tried to fix it through creating the Emergency Relief and Construction Act and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (didn't really work)
A law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages - 18th Amendment. Repealed by the 21st Amendment
Ku Klux Klan
An organization of white supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population in the United States. Expressed beliefs in respect for the American woman and things purely American [anti-immigrant]. Strongest periods were after the Civil War, a resurfacing in 1915 [on Stone Mountain, GA.] continuing through the 1920s, and another upsurge in the 1990s.
Manufacturing process in which each worker does one specialized task in the construction of the final product. Results in increased production volume.
Stock Market Crash
(1929)The steep fall in the prices of stocks due to widespread financial panic. It was caused by stock brokers who called in the loans they had made to stock investors. This caused stock prices to fall, and many people lost their entire life savings as many financial institutions went bankrupt.
To buy stock by paying only a fraction of the stock price and borrowing the rest.
..., Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages. Effect - Farmers migrate West.
Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. Gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America
African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
..., Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
..., Born in Chicago middle class. moved to Harlem in 1923 and began playing at the cotton club. Composer, pianist and band leader. Most influential figures in jazz.
An involvement in risky business transactions in an effort to make a quick or large profit.
(FDR) , , President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in U.S. social and economic life. RELIEF, RECOVERY, AND REFORM
Civilian Conservation Corps
a public work relief program for unemployed men so they have jobs. the men worked on jobs related to conservation and development of natural resources
Works Progress Administration
New Deal agency that helped create jobs for those that needed them. It created around 9 million jobs working on bridges, roads, and buildings.
Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
National Labor Relations Board
A 1935 law, also known as the Wagner Act, that guarantees workers the right of collective bargaining sets down rules to protect unions and organizers, and created the National Labor Relations Board to regulate labor-managment relations.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Democratic candidate who won the 1932 election by a landslide. He refused to uphold any of Hoover's policies with the intent on enacting his own. He pledged a present a "New Deal" (its specific meaning ambiguous at the time to the American people) to the American public.
End of Great Depression
WWII provided jobs and government spent more money with massive military orders including War Production Board
Agricultural Adjustment Act
(FDR) 1933 and 1938 , Helped farmers meet mortgages. Unconstitutional because the government was paying the farmers to waste 1/3 of there products. Created by Congress in 1933 as part of the New Deal this agency attempted to restrict agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies to take land out of production.
Return to Normalcy
After World War I 1919-20s, when Harding was President, the US and Britain returned to isolatoinism. The US economy "boomed" but Europe continued to struggle. It was the calm before the bigger storm hit: World War II. A return to Laissez Faire Capitalism!
starting with collapse of the US stock market in 1929, period of worldwide economic stagnation and depression. Heavy borrowing by European nations from USA during WW1 contributed to instability in European economies. Sharp declines in income and production as buying and selling slowed down. Widespread unemployment, countries raised tariffs to protect their industries. America stopped investing in Europe. Lead to loss of confidence that economies were self adjusting, HH was blamed for it
1932 - Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans tried to pressure Congress to pay them their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill authorizing immediate assurance of $2.4 billion, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army to get the veterans out of there.