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37 terms

Chapter 19 Biology

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Lysogenic infection
process in which viral DNA bceomes part of a host cell's DNA.
Eubacteria
the larger of the two kingdoms of prokaryotes
chemautotroph
organism that obtains energy from inorganic molecules
toxin
substance produced by some bacteria that poisons host cells
prion
pathogen that causes disease in animals by forming a protein clump
bacteriophage
virus that infects bacteria
coccus
spherical bacteria
chemoheterotroph
organism that must take in organic molecules for both energy and a supply of carbon
antibiotic
compound that can destroy bacteria
virus
a particle of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases, lipids
prokaryote
organism consisting of one cell that lacks a nucleus
spirillum
spiral shaped bacterium
prophage
viral DNA that is embedded by the host's DNA
pathogen
disease causing agent
lytic infection
process in which a host cell bursts after being invaded by a virus
endospore
spore formed by bacteria when growth conditions become unfavorable
bacillus
rod shaped bacterium
binary fission
process in which a bacterium replicates its DNA and divides in half
obligate anaerobe
organism that can live only in an oxygen free environment
vaccine
preperation of weakened or killed pathogens
retrovirus
virus having RNA as its genetic material
capsid
protein coat of a virus
lytic
type of viral infection that causes the cell to burst
conjugation
exchange of genetic material in bacteria
Antibiotic Resistance
the ability of a microorganism to produce a protein that disables an antibiotic or prevents transport of the antibiotic into the cell
asexual reproduction
nonsexual means of reproduction which can include grafting and budding
autotroph
an organism that uses energy to synthesize organic molecules from inorganic substances
bacteria
a single-celled, microscopic prokaryotic organism
epidemic
an outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads widely and rapidly
germ theory of disease
a set of criteria used to establish that a particular infectious agent causes a disease
heterotroph
an organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating organisms or their by-products
host
animal or plant on which or in which another organism lives
microbe
a microorganism
parasitism
the close associatio of two or more dissimilar organisms where the association is harmful to at least one
pandemic
an epidemic over a wide geographic area and affecting an exceptionally high proportion of the population
photosynthesis
the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy stored in organic molecules
sexual reproduction
the process where two cell fuse to form one hybrid