Mary and William III become monarchs of England and sign the Bill of Rights
voice of people -house of lords -house of commons refused to give King Charles money until he signed petition of right, passed laws limiting royal powers, after death of Charles II drafted Bill of Rights
English Civil War
Royalists (loyal to King Charles) vs. Roundheads(Parliament supporters) violent revolution
general for Parliament, abolished monarchy and house of lords, established new government called common wealth, dismissed Parliament, when he died his government collapsed
Prince Charles II
became king after Cromwell, his ruling called Restoration,
Bill of Rights
listed things a ruler could not do
What are causes for a Revolution?
rights taken away, had previous experience of freedom, absolute monarch, high taxes, Enlightenment thinkers, lack of representation in gov., gap between rich and poor
What are the 2 parts of the actual revolution?
1. overthrow (violent or non violent) 2. deal with ruler (kill, exile, imprison)
What happens post revolution?
Rule by moderates, then Radicals take over and a sometimes a "reign of terror", then people run from radical rule and go back to old order(generally monarchy)
What are the effects of a revolution?
change in government, guarantee rights, revolutions tend to cause revolutions elsewhere
absolute monarch, disbanded Parliament then later recalls it and asks for money(needed money to fight war) but when they refuse he disbands it again, Parliament attempts to limit his power and he arrests the leaders, people of England revolt against him(English Civil War)
tax revolts in American Revolution
Boston Tea Party, boycott of British goods
First and Second Continental Congress
wrote Declaration of Independence, organized revolutionary army
violent overthrow of British government during American Revolution
formed federal gov.
What were causes of the English Revolution?
Political: absolute monarch, freedoms taken away Social: experience with some independence, enlightenment ideas Economic: taxes
What were causes of the American Revolution?
Political: Quartering Acts, Intolerable Acts Economic: British had debt from French and Indian War, taxes (Stamp Act, Tea Act) Social: used to Independence, inspired by "life, liberty, and property", charters gave freedom
What were causes of the French Revolution?
Political: large gap between rich and poor Economic: high taxes, high prices, bad harvests, 1st and 2nd Estate didn't pay taxes Social: gap between rich and poor, Enlightenment ideas
What are the stages of revolution?
tax revolts, revolutionary mobilization(groups of revolution emerge), ineffective government repression(government attempts to use military force to restrain illegal actions of revolutionaries), ineffective government accommodation(government gives in to revolutionaries hoping to stop revolts)
Who were parties of revolution during the American Revolution?
Continental Congress, Sons of Liberty, Daughters of Revolution
During the American Revolution, what was the ineffective government repression?
British troops occupied Boston after Boston Tea Party, they conducted illegal searches
What was the ineffective government accommodation during the A.R.?
repealed Stamp Act
What was the rule of the moderates in the A.R.?
Patriots in Continental Congress, Articles of Confederation(technically 1st Constitution)
What was the "reign of terror" during the A.R.?
couldn't enforce laws, Shay's rebellion
What was the turn from radical rule during the A.R.?
Constitutional Convention came up with Constitution with formed federal gov.
What were the effects of the A.R.?
legislative government, Bill of Rights, could not be taxed unreasonably, elected leaders, led to French Revolution
contract between nobles and king saying that king could no longer abuse power
Meeting of the Estates General
each estate had one vote, Third Estate wanted one vote per delegate(Third Estate was majority of population), Third Estates request denied by king
Reign of Terror in FR
radicals protested King Louis XVI coming back to throne, raided prisons, killed more than 1000 people
Robespierre rules: against peasant rights, seized control, executes about 85% of peasants, eventually captures and killed by National Assembly
Roman Catholic Clergy didn't pay taxes
nobles didn't pay taxes
98% of population, common people, city workers, peasants paid high taxes
Tennis Court Oath
Third Estate delegates locked out of meeting, broke into tennis court and took an oath to stay there until they had drawn up a new constitution, King Louis XVI gave into demands for one vote per delegate (ineffective government accommodation)
March on Versaille
riots and violence throughout Paris, peasants feared nobles were trying to starve them so they stormed the Palace of Versailles, this forced King Louis XVI out of palace and out of power
Storming of the Bastille
King Louis XVI feared uprising so gave into National Assembly (ineffective government accommodation), called in Swiss troops to keep peace in Paris because most soldiers were in 3rd Estate (ineffective government repression) people panicked when they saw the Swiss troops and stormed the French prison, the Bastille, to get gun powder to defend themselves from Swiss
example of Revolutionary Mobilization formed by third estate delegates, gave themselves to power to pass laws, vowed to end absolute monarch
What were the effects of the French Revolution?
National Assembly adopted "Declaration of the Right of Man"
How did the French Revolution deal with overthrown government?
King Louis XVI was beaten, he tried to escape to Netherlands but brought back to France
created by National Assembly, made new laws, new French government, (rule of moderates)
What was the radicals gaining power in the F.R.?
division in Legislative Assembly radicals=sans cullottes, really poor peasants, conseratives=emigres, former members of 2nd Estate
What was the rule by radicals in the FR?
Jacobins rule Jacobins=radical political group, wanted to get rid of monarchy and establish republic
What was the turn from radical rule in the FR?
after Robespierre died a new gov. emerged: -legislature -Directory (body of 5 men that were like executive branch)