Hazardous Waste Chapter 20, 21
Terms in this set (72)
What development a man's use of technologies reduce toxicity, volume, and mobility of hazardous waste?
Super fun legislation and the 1984 has this and solid waste amendments of RCRA
What our treatment technologies?
Physical, chemical common biological, stabilization/fixation
What Are chemical treatments?
Transforms waste into less hazardous material by using neutralization camo precipitation, and oxidation/production.
What are biological treatments?
Use micro organism to degrade organic compounds in the waste.
What is thermal treatment?
Include incineration and pyrolysis
waste stabilization and solidification techniques are?
Involve removing excess water from waste and the solidifying by mixing it with stabilization agents example cement and glass.
Stabilization it does what?
Reduces the solubility or chemical we activity of waste by changing its chemical state by physical entrapment.
Converts waste into an easily handle solid with reduced hazards from voltilization leaching and spillage.
Adding a solid to soak up any liquid and the waist, it may Produce a soil like material
Like-fly ash pozzolan processes are what?
Process to solidifies solid mass with mixed hydrate line example volcanic ash or hydrates of silicic acid
Cement based solidification and stabilization systems have proved to be versatile and adaptable method in which the waste is incorporated into the rigid matrix or the hardened concrete.
Use in nuclear waste disposal. Dispersal into a plastic matrix
Macroencapsulation (or jacketing systems)
Pollutants are bonding in an inert coating or jacket around a mass of cemented waste or by sealing them in polyethylene lined drums or containers.
Is to combine waste in molten glass at a temperature of 1250ﾟC or greater
What's essential when it comes to proper storage of hazardous waste?
To avoid accidents of discharge of such waste can calls both environmental damage and harm to public health
What do storage facilities represent?
A temporary management technique
What are large quantity generators?
Allow as many as 90 days
What are small quantity generators
They allow 180 days
What is temporary storage?
Maybe pits, pawns common lagoons, tanks, drums, piles, and vaults
Ponds and lagoons are what?
Are lined with clay, asphalt camo concrete, soil cement, bentonie soil, or polymeric membranes.
What are membrane linings?
are polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene and special rubber.
Where can small amounts of hazardous waste be place?
In plastic, fiber glass, steel drums for temporary storage and transport
Where can non corrosive liquids be placed?
In storage in metal drums
Where can corrosive liquids Be store?
Fiber lined drums
What Does UST mean?
Underground storage tanks these were deuce the potential for explosion and fire, but leaks are common
In what year did the EPA codifies stringent regulations and what was the CFR?
EPA in 1988 came up with the regulation 40 CFR 280-281
In what year did the EPA clean air act be amended?
In 1990 . This codify regulation for above ground storage emissions
What are surface impoundments?
Ponds lagoons and pits are this
What was the reason behind no regulation for surface impoundments?
Most of these work constructed without proper lining
What provided potential for air and ground water pollution?
What are landfills?
Certain hazardous waste all banned from land disposal PCB cyanides, halogenated organic compounds, and acids with ph of less than 2.
What are Surface water impoundments
Evacuated or diked areas that are used to contain and store liquid waste.
What are deep well injections?
EPA recognizes 5 classes of injection wells
Class one Well
Injection of industrial or manicis will waste fluids beneath the lore most formation containing underground source of drinking water USDW
Class two well
Injection of brines from oil and gas production or other fluids used to enhance the recovery of oil
Class 3 wells
Injection of fluids for the extraction of Saw herbal mineral such as salt solution mining
Class four wells
Injection of hazardous of radioactive waste into or above a USDW. These well were banned in 1984.
Class V wells
Use for the disposal of non hazardous fluids storm water drainage Wells, heat pumps and air condition return, says cesspools, septic systems, floor drains and pumps
Comprehensive environmental response compensation and law bility act 1980?
This was authorized by the government to act upon release of hazardous substance that might endanger the environment or public health
How many hazardous waste sites were identified?
National Priorities List, Superfund... List site target for clean up
What are the 3 environmental contaminants categories
Organic, in organic and biological contaminants
What are organic content is divided into?
Volatile, semi volatile and pesticides
What are volatile organic compounds?
Substances containing carbon that evaporate very quickly. High vapor pressure at standard temperature and pressure.
What is the most common volatile organic compounds?
Chlorinated Aliphatic compounds
What are Aromatics?
benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylene
What is vapor pressure?
Exerted by a vapor in themodynamic equilibrium with its Condensed phases solid or liquid at a given temperature in a close system.
What is the indication rate of vapor pressure ?
What does the vapor pressure and evaporation rate relate to?
The tendency of particles to escape from the liquid or a solid
Why is substances called volatile?
These are with high vapor pressure at normal temperatures
What are semi volatile organic compounds?
Common are. phenol and phthalates.
lower vapor pressure at standard temperature and pressure.
solid at standard temp. and pressure.
What are pesticides?
Chemicals intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops.
Enter the environment through both agricultural and residential useful a pest and weed control.
Maybe in the form of powder or dissolved in solvent.
Polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs were banned because they are unsafe.
What are the names of some pesticides?
BHC, DDD, DDE,DDT, endrin, ethion, malathion, toxaphene
What are the names of halogenated SVOC?
pentacholorophenol PCP, polychlorinated biphenyls PCB, hexachlobenzene, 1,2 tetrachorobenzene, dioxins, furans
What are POPs?
persistent organic pollutants, Are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical common biological, and photolytic processes.
Because of their persistence POPs will pop by your accumulate with potential adverse impacts on human health and environment
In organic contaminants
Naturally occurring compounds that be concentrated it because of human activity
Example of heavy metals
mercury, lead, iron, manganese
What are biological contaminants?
Human and animal waste com blood and flesh from hospitals and laboratories com contaminate needles
Principal concerns bacteria and pathogens
Chemical compounds or biological contaminations to soil common ground water common surface water and air
What is solid waste?
Residuals generated by manufacturing or a treatment process sludge's electro planning process waste com mining spoilage, and industrials powders and salts.
Raw liquid may spill or leak. Spillage or improper and disposal can contaminate the sole common ground water, surface water or the air
Municipal solid waste
Waste produced by households and businesses, Older landfills for household waste without proper linings or drains can be a environmental hazard. Before proper regulations, do you sites were used for industrial waste and dumping
Can become contaminated in a number of ways. Soil must be will mediated as soon as possible to avoid the spread of contamination.
Remedial investigation feasibility study
Emphasizes data collection and site characterization to define nature and extent of contamination
What's a feasibility study?
Emphasizes The data analysis's and decision making to develop objectives and alternative remedial response.
Data to identify conditions that may limit or aid use of certain remedial technologies
may influence the feasibility of remedial technologies.
performance record of technology being considered must assessed.
public health concerns
site should under go public health evaluation.
the effects of federal, state and local standards and other institutional consideration
detailed analysis of cost which include the estimated capital and operation and maintenance cost.