Science Final Study Guide Ch. 3-5
Terms in this set (21)
What are the general characteristics (shape and volume) of a Solid?
Solid- has a definite shape and volume
What are the general characteristics (shape and volume) of a Liquid?
Liquid-has a definite volume but no shape of its own
What are the general characteristics (shape and volume) of a Gas?
Gas-can change volume very easily they can spread the substance out
Describe the motion of the particles, amount of kinetic energy, and position of the particles for each state.
Solid-motion, vibrating low kinetic energy position, they stay in about the same position but vibrate in place
Liquid-motion -move freely, kinetic energy-medium, position-packed close together but move freely to allow liquids to flow
Gas-motion-moving in all directions, kinetic energy-high, position-fill whatever space is given to them.
What are the Three States of Matter?
Solid Liquid and Gas
Describe what happens to the particles during a change of state. (position changes, motion changes, energy changes (specifically thermal engergy movement, aka HEAT)
Melting is when liquid reaches a certain temperature boiling (melting point). Ex: water is 0 degrees Celsius. Heat makes water molecules vibrate faster, raising their temperature at melting point. Particles of a solid substance are vibrating so fast they break free of their fixed positions. Freezing-reverse of melting. Particles of a liquid move so slowly they begin to form regular patterns.
Know the charge, size and location of protons.
Protons-they are positive, there size is 1, they are found in the nucleus
Know the charge, size and location of Electrons.
Electrons- They are negative, there size is 1/1,836 , they are found in a cloud around the nucleus as if moving around freely.
Know the charge, size and location of Neutrons.
Neutrons-They are neutral, there size is 1, they are found in the nucleus
What do elements in the same group have in common?
Consists of elements with similar characteristics.
What info can be found in a square of the periodic table? What does each piece of info mean?
Atomic mass, the average mass of all the isotopes of an element. atomic number, the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
What are the physical properties of metals?
Shininess, malleability, ductility, and conductivity.
Describe the reactivity trend of metals on the periodic table.
It tends to decrease as you go from left to right on the periodic table.
Which metal group is the most reactive? Why?
Alkali metals because they are on the far left of the table.
Which groups are at the bottom of the periodic table? Why?
Lanthanides and Actinides to make it fit on a standard textbook and make it more compact.
What are the physical properties of nonmetals?
Poor conductors of electricity and heat. Reactivity with other elements. Solid nonmetals, are dull and brittle.
What are the properties and location of the Noble gases?
Located in group 18. Usually not reactive
What is a valence electron?
They are electrons that have the highest energy level and are held most loosely.
What does an electron dot diagram show?
Tells the # of valence electrons, symbol for an element.
What is an ionic bond?
The attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions. Form as a result of the attraction between (+) and (-) Ions.
What is a covalent bond?
2 atoms share electrons. Usually form between atoms of nonmetals.
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